• Although information theory—the analysis of signals and noise—was first developed in the 1940s, it has only recently been applied to biology.

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  • Once he has defined information, Mr Vedral proceeds to show how information theory can be applied to biology, physics, economics, sociology and philosophy.

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  • Mr Vedral gives a good description of how Shannon's information theory can be applied to winning at blackjack or in buying shares (Shannon and his friends made fortunes in Las Vegas as well as on the stockmarket).

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  • But substantiating such a theory will require more information about prehistoric climate and agriculture, and more archaeological evidence.

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  • Vast databases of information will increasingly allow—in theory, at least—advertisers to pinpoint customers, rather than carpet-bombing them with commercials that may be irrelevant (see article).

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  • The academic concept of efficient market theory—that prices already reflect all available information—has led to the creation of index-tracking funds that allow investors to own a diversified portfolio at very low cost.

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  • We found five interrelated criteria that form a new blueprint for how corporations can maximize their investments in CSR: business-based social purpose, clear theory of change, quality and depth of information, concentrated effort, and partnering with experts.

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  • The problem, however, is that this theory assumes that all investors are sharing the same information and act instantly on it.

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  • Learning-style theory proposes that each of us absorbs and processes information in one of several distinct ways: visual, auditory, tactile or kinesthetic, for example.

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  • There are similar problems with another theory about the future of the firm: that information technology will slowly but surely deconstruct the company as we know it.

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  • The price they paid incorporated all that was known about the stock, the theory goes, so if it plunged after the company released new information, the investor can be presumed to have bought it at an inflated price.

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  • This approach, he argues, stems from a belief in efficient-market theory which states, at its simplest, that prices reflect all available information.

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  • Doug Whitman, also a fan of the mosaic theory of investments, was found guilty after a jury said he received information on high tech companies from his former neighbor, Roomy Khan.

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  • The Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit, based in Louisiana, said in its order Tuesday that there are a few variations on the classical theory of insider trading, which is when a company insider trades based on information that is not publicly available.

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  • In theory, insider trading involves the buying or selling of securities based on material corporate information still unknown to the public.

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  • According to Dr Sinclair's theory, which he calls xenohormesis, animals rely on such botanical stress signals to give them extra information about their own environments, in the same way that the alarm calls of one species warn others of danger.

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