过去式 百科内容来自于: 百度百科

过去式,总的来说是英语语法的一种,表示过去某个时间里发生的动作或状态。一般过去式的动词通常用动词的过去式形式来表示,而动词的过去式是在动词原形的基础上变化的。动词的过去式可分为规则动词和不规则动词。

定义

过去式
⒈过去发生的而已经结束的动作需要用一般过去式来表示。
⒉表示过去某个时间里发生的 动作或状态。
过去时态】表示行为、动作和状态在各种时间条件下的动词形式。
过去时态结构】是指过去时态下的动词形式的语法构成。

规则动词

普通动词变化规则
  1. 一般动词直接加-ed;e.g.look-looked
  2. 以e结尾的动词直接加-d,e.g.dance-danced
  3. 辅音字母加y结尾的,去y加-ied,e.g.study-studied
  4. 以重读闭音节结尾,末尾只有一个辅音字母,双写这个辅音字母加-ed、e.g.skip-skipped
    ﹝英语26个字母中,除了a,e,i,o,u ‹即aoeiu› 这几个元音字母外,其他都是辅音字母
  5. 动词过去式与原形相同
  6. 动词过去式以ought或aught结尾
  7. 动词过去式由原形结尾的end变为ent
  8. 动词过去式以elt,eft,ept结尾
  9. 动词过去式与原形比较,其中一个元音字母发生改变
  10. 动词过去式以ew结尾
  11. 动词过去式ee变为e

情态动词及其过去式

不规则情态动词:
is-was
  are-were
  am-was
  go-went
  do,does-did
  bring-brought
  make-made
  have-had
  run-ran
  tell-told
  eat-ate
  get-got
  draw-drew
  put -put
  read-read
  take- took
  diy-died
  see-saw
fly flow
   规则情态动词:
  
call- called
  live- lived
  learn- learned/learnt
  walk,talk +ed
  jump +ed
  use+d
  plant,want,water,play +ed
  stop- stopped
  study- studied
  visit- visited

不规则动词

1.原形-过去式-过去分词全相同
cost---cost---cost价值
cut --- cut --- cut切,割,砍
hit --- hit --- hit打
hurt---hurt---hurt 伤害
read---read---read 读
put --- put ---put放
let --- let --- let 让
shut---shut---shut关
2. 过去分词与原形相同,过去式改o/u为a
become---became---become变得,成为
come---came---come来
run --- ran --- run跑
3. 原形-过去式-过去分词是i-a-u的变化
begin---began---begun开始
drink---drank---drunk喝
ring---rang---rung打电话
sing---sang---sung唱(歌)
swim---swam---swum游泳
4. 过去分词在原形后加-en
eat ---ate---eaten 吃
fall---fell ---fallen落下;跌倒
5. 过去式和过去分词都去掉原形的一个e
feed---fed ---fed喂养,饲养
meet---met---met碰到,见面,会面
6. 过去分词在原形后加-n
blow--- blew--- blown吹
grow---grew---grown种植;生长
throw---threw---thrown投;掷;扔
know---knew---known 知道;懂得;认为
draw --- drew --- drawn画
fly--- flew---flown飞
see --- saw --- seen 看见,看到
show---showed---shown出示;给...看
give--- gave ---given给
drive---drove---driven驾驶
take---took---taken拿去;带去
7. 过去分词以en结尾
bite--- bit --- bitten咬
ride---rode---ridden骑(车,马等)
write---wrote---written写
break---broke---broken弄坏,弄破
choose--chose--chosen选择
speak---spoke---spoken讲话;演讲
wake---woke---woken使...醒来;弄醒
forget---forgot---forgotten忘记
hide---hid---hidden躲,藏
8. 过去分词以ne结尾
do --- did --- done做,干
go --- went --- gone去
9.过去式与过去分词都有aught结尾
catch---caught ---caught 捉住;抓住
teach---taught---taught教
10.过去式和过去分词都有ought结尾
bring---brought---brought拿来;带来
buy ---bought ---bought买
fight---fought---fought打架;打仗
think---thought--thought想;认为
teach---taught--taught教vt.教;教导,训练;教授 vi.教书
11. dig ---dug ---dug挖
get ---got---got得到;获得
sit --- sat --- sat坐下
hold---held ---held举行;握住
shine --- shone --- shone照耀
say--- said ---said说
pay---paid---paid付账;为...付款
make---made---made制造;制作
tell --- told --- told告诉
sell---sold---sold卖
stand --- stood --- stood站立
understand-understood-understood明白;理解
find --- found --- found发现
12. 过去式和过去分词都在原形后加d或t
hear--heard--heard 听见;听说
mean --meant--meant意思是
13. 过去式和过去分词都以elt,eft或ept结尾
feel --- felt --- felt感觉
keep --- kept --- kept保持
sleep---slept---slept睡觉
leave --- left --- left离开
14 . have --- had --- had有
lose --- lost --- lost丢失;迷失
build---built---built 建造;建设
send --- sent --- sent寄;送
lend---lent---lent借
spend --- spent --- spent花费(时间,金钱)
15. lie --- lay --- lain躺;位于
wear --- wore --- worn穿;戴
be ---was, were --- been是
16. 只有过去式
can --- could能
may --- might可能,也许
shall---should将要
will---would将要
17. 过去式和过去分词均有两个
burn-burned/burnt-burned/burnt燃烧
dream-dreamed/dreamt-dreamed/dreamt做梦;梦见
learn-learned/learnt-learned/learnt学会
smell--smelled/smelt--smelled/smelt闻
spell--spelled/spelt--spelled/spelt拼写

结构

Be动词的一般过去时
内容在没有实义动词的句子中使用be动词, am is 的过去式为was; are的过去式为were
肯定句:主语 + be(was , were) + 其它.
否定句:主语 + be(was , were) + not + 其它.
一般疑问句:Be(was , were) + 主语 + 其它?
注:在这种构成中,be动词有人称和数的变化,即要根据主语选用was / were。Be动词分为单数复数,was是表示单数,were是表示复数。
实义动词的一般过去时态
肯定句要使用动词的过去式,否定句和疑问句要使用助动词do和 does 的过去式 did.
肯定句式:主语+动词(过去式)+ 其它
否定句式:主语 + didn’t + 动词(原形)+ 其它 【did not = didn’t】
一般疑问句:Did + 主语+ 动词(原形)+ 其它【do , does的过去时均为did】?
注:1. did 和didn’t 是构成一般过去时的助动词,其特点是要在其后跟动词的原形。
2. 实意动词do 的一般过去时
I domy homework every day.(用yesterday改写句子)
I didmy homework yesterday.
I didn’t do my homework yesterday.(否定句)
Didyou doyour homework yesterday?Yes ,I did. /No, I didn’t.(一般疑问句)
情态动词的一般过去时态
含有情态动词的一般过去时与含有Be动词的一般过去时,是十分相似,请注意观察。
肯定句式:主语 + 情态动词 + 其它
否定句式:主语 + 情态动词 + not + 其它.
一般疑问句:情态动词 + 主语 + 其它?
注:情态动词的过去式:can→could , may→might , must→must ,will-would,shall-should。
特殊疑问句式:
特殊疑问词+be过去式+主语+其他?
特殊疑问词+情态助动词过去式+主语+动词原形+其他?
特殊疑问词+do/does过去式+主语+动词原形+其他?
What was your former name? 你以前叫什么名字?
Why was he late for school last Monday? 上星期一他为什么迟到?
What could she do twenty years ago? 20年前她能做什么?

概念

表示过去某个时间里发生的动作或状态。一般过去式的动词通常用动词的过去式形式来表示,而动词的过去式是在动词原形的基础上变化的。动词的过去式可分为规则动词和不规则动词。 【 过去式
⒈过去发生的而已经结束的动作需要用一般过去式来表示
⒉表示过去某个时间里发生的动作或状态。
⒊过去习惯性、经常性的动作、行为;过去主语所具备的能力和性格。
过去时态】表示行为、动作和状态在各种时间条件下的动词形式。
过去时态结构】是指过去时态下的动词形式的语法构成。
如:work-worked
listen-listened 一般的就是直接加ed,特殊的有一些变化。

例句

A:What did you do last weekend? 你上周末做了什么?
B:I played football.我踢了足球。
A:Did you read books?你看了书吗?
B:Yes,I did.是的,我看了。
A:What did you do last week?你上个星期做了什么?
B:I studied English.我学习了英语。
A:Did you read books?你看了书吗?
B:Yes,I did.是的,我看了。

构成

表示一般过去式的动词通常用动词的过去式形式来表示,规则动词的过去式变化如下:
⑴一般情况下,动词词尾加 ed ,如:
work—worked; play—played;want— wanted; act—acted
⑵以不发音的 e 结尾动词,动词词尾加 d,如:
live—lived; move—moved; decide—decided; decline—declined; hope—hoped;
⑶以辅音字母+ y结尾的动词,把y变为i 再加ed,如:
studied tried copied justified cried carried embodied emptied
⑷以一个辅音字母结尾的重读闭音节动词,双写词尾辅音字母,再加 ed,如:
stopped begged fretted dragged dropped planned dotted dripped
⑸以ic结尾的动词,要把ic变成ick再加ed,如picnic→picnicked,traffic→trafficked
⑹注:不规则动词的过去式变化规律性不强,须多加记忆。
am(is)-was,
are-were(是),
read(读)—read
become _became (成为)
go-went(走),
(买) buy --bought,
sell--sold(卖)
come-came(来),
take-took(拿),
have (has)-had(有),
begin(开始)--began,
bring(拿来)--brought,
can(能)--could,
catch(捉住)--caught,
cut(砍,割)--cut,
do/does(做,干)--did,
draw(画画,拉)--drew,
drink(喝)--drank,
drive(驾驶)--drove,
eat(吃)--ate,
fall(跌倒,落下)--fell,
feel(感觉)--felt,
fly(飞)--flew,
get(获得)--got,
give(给)---gave,
grow(生长)--grew,
keep(保持)--kept,
know(知道,认识)--knew,
learn(学习)--learnt,
leave (离开)--left,
let(让)--let,
lie(躺,平放)--lay,
make(使得,做)--made,
may(可以)--might,
must(必须)--must,
ride (骑)--rode,
ring (鸣铃)--rang,
run(跑)--ran,
say( 说)--said,
see (看见)--saw,
sell (卖)--sold,
send(送)--sent,
set (放)--set,
sing(唱歌)--sang,
sit (坐)--sat,
sleep (睡觉)--slept,
speak(说话)--spoke,
spend (花费)--spent,
stand (站立)--stood,
swim (游泳)--swam,
teach(教)--taught,
tell (告诉)--told,
think(认为)--thought,
throw(投掷)--threw,
understand(懂得)--understood,
wear(穿)--wore,
will(将要)--would,
win(获胜)--won,
(弯曲) bend --bent,
blow --blew(吹)
而不规则动词的过去式的发音则略有不同,但是有些还是按照一定规律变化的。如以上的:make - made,get - got ,buy - bought ,come - came ,fly-flew ,bring-brought,teach-taught,think-thought,say-said,sit-sat. read-read,spend-spent,give-gave,tell-told,write-wrote,feel-felt,find-found,hear-heard,know-knew,put-put,grow-grew,take-took,catch-caught,become-became,swim-swam,sweep—swept,sing—sang,draw—drew。
仔细看一看,能发现它们的一些变化规律,也就是说不需要死记硬背这些过去式,知道了原型和变化规律,就可以写出来了。有的变化部分读音也是有规律的。分类记忆是对学习过去式很有帮助的!

用法

一般过去时的用法一.概念:一般过去时是表示在过去的时间里发生的动作或状态,通常与表示过去的时间状语连用。
二.时间状语:yesterday,the day before yesterday,two days ago,long long ago,a minute ago,last year(week,month),just now,at that time,in those days.
三.过去时的用法:1.有确定的过去时间状语时要用过去式。
例:We had a good time last week.
2.表示过去连续发生的动作时,要用过去式。
例:The boy closed the door,turned off the window,and then went to bed.
⒊ 表示过去一段时间内经常或反复的动作,要用过去式。
例:She often came to help me at that time.
四.一般过去式的构成形式:☆Be动词的过去式:⑴肯定句:主语+ be动词的过去式(was,were)
例:He was ill yesterday. She was nine two years ago.They were my students long long ago.
否定句:主语+ be动词的过去式(was,were)+ not
例:He was not ill yesterday.She was not nine two years ago.They were not my students long long ago.
一般疑问句:直接把be动词提到句首。
例:Was he ill yesterday?
肯定回答:Yes,he was.
否定回答:No,he wasn't.Was she nine two years ago? Yes,she was. / No,she wasn't.Were they your students long long ago? Yes,they were. / No,they weren't.
实意动词的过去式:⑴肯定句:主语+动词的过去式
例:He played football last week.She watched TV last night.
⑵否定句:主语+ did not +动词原形
例:He did not play football last week.She didn’t watch TV last night.
一般疑问句:Did +主语+动词原形 例:Did he play football last week?
回答:Yes,he did./ No,he didn't.
Did she watch TV last night?
回答:Yes,she did. / No,she didn’t.
五.动词变过去式的几种常用规则:1.一般词动直接+ ed;
例:look--looked want--wanted listen --listened
2.以e结尾的词直接+ d;例:live--lived phone--phoned
3.以辅音字母加y结尾,变y为i加ed;例:try--tried study--studied
4.重读闭音节结尾的,词尾只有一个辅音字母,双写词尾辅音字母+ ed;例:stop--stopped plan--planned
⒌不规则动词: 动词由原形转变为过去式时不按词尾加“-ed”之变化规则者叫做不规则动词。小学常见的动词不规则过去式如:是be/is/am- was,是are- were,来come-came,去go- went,有have- had,做/干do- did,做make- made 读read- read,放put- put,切割cut- cut,写write- wrote,带走take- took,买buy- bought,带来bring- brought,想think- thought,看见see- saw,说say- said,说话speak- spoke,打破break- broke,得到get- got,跑run- ran,告诉tell- told,唱sing- sang,喝drink- drank,吃eat- ate,游泳swim- swam,开始begin- began,偷steal- stole,遇见meet- met,卖sell- sold,坐sit- sat,跑run-ran,读read-read,想要want-want,知道know-known,fall-fell等等。
I worked in that factory last year. 我在那一家工厂工作。I went to the Tian Long Mountain yesterday. 昨天我们去了天龙山。I stayed at home,yesterday.昨天,我整日呆在家里.
一般过去时态:表示过去某一时间所发生的动作或存在的状态。谓语动词要用一般过去式。
时间标志:yesterday(昨天),last weekend(上周),last month(上个月),last year,two months ago(两个月前),the day before yesterday(前天),in 1990 (在1990年),in those days (在那些日子里)等表示过去的时间状语。
如:
I was born in 1990. (我出生在1990年)。
When did you go to the park? (你是什么时候去的公园)。
I went to the park last weekend. (我是上周去的公园)
在上面的句子中第一句属于be动词的一般过去时态
第二句和第三句属于实义动词go的一般过去时态。
.
构成:
肯定句:主语+was (were) +表语
如:I was late yesterday. (昨天我迟到了。)
否定句主语+was (were) +not+表语
如:We weren't late yesterday. (我们昨天没迟到)
疑问句:Was (Were) +主语+表语
如:Was you sick yesterday? (你昨天病了吗?)
肯定回答:Yes,I was. (是的,我病了。)
否定回答:No,I wasn't. (不,我没病。)
特殊疑问句特殊疑问词+was (were) +主语+表语
如:When were you born? 你是什么时候出生的?
awake-awoke-awoken

读法

规则动词词尾加-ed有三种读音:
1. 在清辅音后读作[t]。如:asked,helped,watched,stopped。
2. 在浊辅音和元音后读作[d]。如:enjoyed,studied,moved,called。
3.在t / d后读作[id]。如:wanted,needed 清音t元浊d td后面读(一的)。
不规则动词的过去式大体上归纳有以下六条记忆法:
1. 以t结尾的词,过去式与原形相同。如:put—put,let—let,cut—cut,beat—beat。
2. 以d结尾的词,把d变成t。如:build—built,lend—lent,send—sent,spend—spent。
3. 以n结尾的词,在词后加t。如:mean—meant,burn—burnt,learn—learnt。
4.以ow / aw结尾的词,把ow / aw变成ew。如:blow—blew,draw—drew,know—knew,grow—grew。
5.含有双写字母的词,将双写改为单写,在词尾加t。如:keep—kept,sleep—slept,feel—felt,smell—smelt。
6.含有元音字母o / i的词,将o / i变成a。如:sing—sang,give—gave,sit—sat,drink—drank。
但也有例外,如get的过去式是got,与第一条不符,仅仅是大多数动词符合。
附表
不规则动词变化表
原形 过去式 过去分词
is/am/are
was/were
been
begin
began
begun
break broke broken
buy
bought
bought
catch
caught
caught
come
came
come
cut
cut
cut
do
did
done
draw
drew
drawn
drink
drank
drunk
drive
drove
driven
eat
ate
eaten
fall fell fallen
feel
felt
felt
fight
fought
fought
find
found
found
fly
flew
flown
get
got
got
give
gave
given
go
went
gone
grow
grew
grown
have
had
had
hear heard heard
hit hit hit
hurt
hurt
hurt
know
knew
known
leave
left
left
lose
lost
lost
make
made
made
meet
met
met
put
put
put
read
read
read
ride
rode
ridden
ring
rang
rung
rise
rose
risen
run
ran
run
say
said
said
see
saw
seen
sell
sold
sold
send
sent
sent
set
set
set
shut
shut
shut
sing
sang
sung
sit
sat
sat
sleep
slept
slept
speak
spoke
spoken
spend
spent
spent
stand
stood
stood
swim
swam
swum
sweep
swept
swept
take
took
taken
teach
taught
taught
tell
told
told
think
thought
thought
throw
threw
thrown
understand
understood
understood
wear
wore
worn
write
wrote
written
$firstVoiceSent
- 来自原声例句
小调查
请问您想要如何调整此模块?

感谢您的反馈,我们会尽快进行适当修改!
进来说说原因吧 确定
小调查
请问您想要如何调整此模块?

感谢您的反馈,我们会尽快进行适当修改!
进来说说原因吧 确定