谓语动词 百科内容来自于: 百度百科

谓语动词指在句子中充当谓语的动词,有行为动词,系动词,情态动词和助动词等几种,其中行为动词又包括及物动词和不及物动词。 谓语动词是与非谓语动词相对应的概念.两者都是动词,但是前者是作谓语成分,后者不能作谓语成分.而谓语成分就是用来说明主语的动作或状态的,一般由动词或短语动词承担.

基本结构

英语句子的成分与现代汉语中学的句子成分类似,基本构成也包含
《英语教练》成人英语学习第一品牌

《英语教练》成人英语学习第一品牌

主、谓、宾,有时有补语状语,还有插入语等成分。由做谓语的动词在句子中称为谓语动词。
一般来说没有谓语的句子是不完整的,比如你举例的句子就没有谓语,由于谓语是说明主语的,所以没有谓语的例句就像个没头的苍蝇,让人觉得很乱,不知所云。但是有些句子中谓语是可以省略的,比如感叹句,What a silly thing (you have done)!括号内的是句子的主语和谓语部分均可省略。
所以掌握动词用法非常重要,在英语中极为重要.动词做谓语放在主语宾语之后,比如:I love you中, love就是谓语动词,又如You know what i know.中,两个know都是谓语成分,紧跟在施动者后.这是谓语动词的普通用法.动词一般都可以做谓语,其中Do可以代替大多数谓语动词.
至于特殊的谓语动词用法很灵活,比如虚拟语气中,谓语动词常采用过去时.有的谓语还有固定用法,比如If I were you I would tell him the truth.这里就体现的是虚拟语气中Be动词的固定变化,须识记.
还有一些可充当谓语动词使用的动词性短语,如turn off,look into,break up......
谓语动词(Predicative Verbs),非谓语动词(Non-predicative Verbs)
动词可充当非谓语和谓语,充当谓语即谓语动词. 谓语动词在形态变化上受主语的限制,有人称和数的变化,它是一个句子或一个从句不可缺少的一部分。
非谓语动词有着动词不定式动名词现在分词过去分词

概念

表示主语动作的词语和词组.
例如:我看电视.“看”就是谓语.
你正在上网.“上网”也是谓语.
I see a girl.我看见一个女孩.“看见”"see"就是这个句子的谓语.而see也是个动词,所以就叫做谓语动词.She is very beautiful.她很漂亮."is"就是这个句子的谓语,也是动词.
短语动词就是动词加小品构成的起动词作用的短语叫短语动词。例如:
Turn off the radio. 把收音机关上。(turn off是短语动词)
短语动词的构成基本有下列几种:
1)动词+副词,如:blank out;
2)动词+介词,如:look into;
3)动词+副词+介词,如:look forward to。构成短语动词的副词和介词都统称为小品词
引申:非谓语动词也是动词,但不能作谓语,只能作主语、表语、宾语、补语、状语定语。非谓语动词又分为动名词、不定式和分词

比较

1) 谓语动词在句中可单独作谓语,而非谓语动词不能单独作谓语。
Miss Mary teaches us English.
玛丽教我们英语。(teaches 动词作谓语)
Mr.Victor came to our classroom to have a talk with us last week.
维克托先生上周来我们教室和我们谈话。 (to have a talk....不定式作目的状语
2) 谓语动词受主语的人称和数的限制,而非谓语动词形式没有这种限制。
Larke likes the pop music.
拉克喜欢流行音乐。 (动词用单数第三人称形式,作谓语)
Larke has nothing to do today.
拉克今天没什么事要做。(do 用原形,补充说明nothing)
非谓语动词的特征
1 如果非谓语动词是及物动词,后面须跟宾语。
Studying English is my favorite.
学习英语是我的爱好。(studying 后跟宾语)
To help him is my duty.
帮助他是我的责任。(help 后跟宾语)
2 非谓语动词可以带有自己的状语逻辑主语
Working under such a condition is terrible.
在这样的环境下工作太可怕了。(under such a condition 是 working 的状语)
It's too difficult for him to master English in such a short time.
他在这么短的时间内掌握英语太难了。(for him 作不定式的逻辑主语
3 非谓语动词仍有语态和时态的变化。
I am sorry to have kept you waiting long.
对不起让你久等了。(to have kept...是不定式的完成形式)
Seen from the mountain, the city looks much more beautiful.
从山上看,这座城市美丽多了。(Seen from...是分词的被动形式)
4 非谓语动词在句中可以当成名词或者形容词来使用。
Our coming made him happy.
我们的到来使他很高兴。(coming 起名词作用)
There are two big swimming pools here.

主谓一致

主谓一致是指:
1)语法形式上要一致,即单复数形式与谓语要一致。
2) 意义上要一致,即主语意义上的单复数要与谓语的单复数形式一致。
3)就近原则,即谓语动词的单复形式取决于最靠近它的词语,
一般来说,不可数名词用动词单数,可数名词复数用动词复数。
There is much water in the thermos.
但当不可数名词前有表示数量的复数名词时,谓语动词用复数形式。
e.g. Ten thousand tons of coal were produced last year.
Large quantities of water are needed.
Large amounts of money are enough.
In western countries, mountains of rubbish are thrown away each day.
1并列结构作主语时谓语用复数
Reading and writing are very important.
注意: 当主语由and连结时,如果它表示一个单一的概念,即指同一人或同一物时,谓语动词用单数,and 此时连接的两个词前只有一个冠词。
The iron and steel industry is very important to our life.

典型例题

例题
The League secretary and monitor ___ asked to make a speech at the meeting.
A. is B. was C. are D. were
答案B. 注: 先从时态上考虑。这是过去发生的事情应用过去时,先排除A.,C.。本题易误选D,因为The League secretary and monitor 好像是两个人,但仔细辨别, monitor 前没有the,在英语中,当一人兼数职时只在第一个职务前加定冠词。后面的职务用and 相连。这样本题主语为一个人,所以应选B。
主谓一致中的靠近原则
1) 当there be句型的主语是一系列事物时,谓语应与最邻近的主语保持一致。
There is a pen, a knife and several books on the desk..
There are twenty boy-students and twenty-three girl-students in the class.
2)当either… or… 与neither… nor, 连接两个主语时,谓语动词与最邻近的主语保持一致。 如果句子是由here, there引导,而主语又不止一个时,谓语通常也和最邻近的主语一致。
Either you or she is to go.
Here is a pen, a few envelopes and some paper for you.
谓语动词与前面的主语一致
当主语后面跟有with, together with, like, except, but, no less than, as well as 等词引起的短语时,谓语动词与前面的主语一致。
The teacher together with some students is visiting the factory.
He as well as I wants to go boating.
谓语需用单数
1)代词each和由every, some, no, any等构成的复合代词作主语,或主语中含有each, every, 谓语需用单数。
Each of us has a tape-recorder.
There is something wrong with my watch.
2) 当主语是一本书或一条格言时,谓语动词常用单数。
The Arabian Nightis a book known to lovers of English.
《天方夜谭》是英语爱好者熟悉的一本好书。
3) 表示金钱,时间,价格或度量衡的复合名词作主语 时,通常把这些名词看作一个整体,谓语一般用单数。(用复数也可,意思不变。)
Three weeks was allowed for making the necessary preparations.
Ten yuan is enough.
指代意义决定谓语的单复数
1) 在代词what, which, who, none, some, any, more, most, all等词的单复数由其指代的词的单复数决定。
All is right. (一切顺利。)
All are present. (所有人都到齐了。)
2)集体名词作主语时,谓语的数要根据主语的意思来决定。如family, audience, crew, crowd, class, company, committee等词后用复数形式时,意为这个集体中的各个成员,用单数时表示该个集体。
His house isn't very large. 他的家不大。
His family are music lovers. 他的家人都是音乐爱好者。
但集合名词people, police, cattle, poultry等在任何情况下都用复数形式。
Are there any police around?
3)有些名词,如variety, number, population, proportion, majority 等有时看作单数,有时看作复数。
A number of +名词复数+复数动词。
The number of +名词复数+单数动词。
A number of books have lent out.
The majority of the students like English.
与后接名词或代词保持一致
1) 用half of, part of, most of, a portion of 等词引起主语时,动词通常与of后面的名词,代词保持一致。
Most of his money is spent on books.
Most of the students are taking an active part in sports.
2) 在一些短语,如 many a 或 more than one 所修饰的词作主语时,谓语动词多用单数形式。但由more than… of 作主语时,动词应与其后的名词或代词保持一致。
Many a person has read the novel. 许多人都读过这本书。
More than 60 percent of the students are from the city.百分之六十多的学生都来自这个城市。
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