语态 百科内容来自于: 百度百科

语态,是英语语法的基础,在语法学中,语态是描述句子中动词和参与此动作之主语之间关系的一个术语。当主语是动作的发起者(或之一)时,称为主动语态;如果主语为动作之承受者,称为被动语态。 而在现代英语中,随着感情化的加深,语态在其中的作用越来越大,所以要学好英语,必须学好语态并不是空话。

概念

英语语法--动词的语态

1动词的语态

语态有两种:主动语态和被动语态。
主语是动作的发出者为主动语态;主语是动作的接受者为被动语态。
1)若宾语补足语是不带to 的不定式,变为被动语态 时,该不定式前要
加"to"。此类动词为感官动词。
feel, hear, help, listen to, look at, make, observe, see, notice, watch
The teacher made me go out of the classroom.
--> I was made to go out of the classroom (by the teacher).
We saw him play football on the playground.
--> He was seen to play football on the playground.
2)情态动词+ be +过去分词,构成被动语态。
Coal can be used to produce electricity for agriculture and industry.
1 let 的用法
1)当let后只有一个单音节动词,变被动语态时,可用不带to 的不定式。
They let the strange go.---> The strange was let go.
2) 若let 后宾补较长时,let 通常不用被动语态,而用allow或permit 代替。
The nurse let me go to see my classmate in the hospital.
----> I was allowed / permitted to see my classmate in the hospital.

短语动词的被动语态

短语动词是一个整体,不可丢掉后面的介词或副词。
This is a photo of the power station that has been set up in
my hometown.
My sister will be taken care of by Grandma.
Such a thing has never been heard of before..

表示"据说"或"相信" 的词组

believe, consider, declare, expect, feel , report, say,
see, suppose, think, understand
It is said that… 据说
It is reported that… 据报道
It is believed that… 大家相信
It is hoped that… 大家希望
It is well known that… 众所周知
It is thought that… 大家认为
It is suggested that… 据建议
It is taken granted that… 被视为当然
It has been decided that… 大家决定
It must be rememberedthat…务必记住的是
It is said that she will leave for Wuhan on Tuesday.

不用被动语态的情况

1) 及物动词或动词短语无被动语态:
appear, die disappear, end (vi. 结束), fail, happen, last, lie,
remain, sit, spread, stand
break out, come true, fall asleep, keep silence, lose heart,
take place.
After the fire, very little remained of my house.
比较: rise, fall, happen是不及物动词;raise, seat是及物动词。
(错) The price has been risen.
(对) The price has risen.
(错) The accident was happened last week.
(对) The accident happened last week.
(错) The price has raised.
(对) The price has been raised.
(错) Please seat.
(对) Please be seated.
要想正确地使用被动语态,就须注意哪些动词是及物的,哪些是不及物的。特别是一词多义的动词往往有两种用法。解决这一问题唯有在学习过程中多留意积累。
2) 不能用于被动语态的及物动词或动词短语
fit, have, hold, marry, own, wish, cost, notice, watch
agree with, arrive at / in, shake hands with, succeed
in, suffer from, happen to, take part in, walk into, belong to
This key just fits the lock. 这把钥匙只适合于这把锁。
Your story agrees with what had already been heard. 你的故事与听说的相符。
3) 系动词无被动语态
appear, be become, fall, feel, get, grow, keep, look,
remain, seem, smell, sound, stay, taste, turn
It sounds good. 听起来很好。
4) 带同源宾语的及物动词,反身代词,相互代词,不能用于被动语态:
die, death, dream, live, life
She dreamed a bad dream last night. 她昨晚做了个噩梦。
5) 当宾语是不定式时,很少用于被动语态
(对) She likes to swim. 她喜爱游泳。
(错) To swim is liked by her.

主动形式表示被动意义

1)wash, clean, cook, iron, look, cut, sell, read,
wear, feel, draw, write, sell, drive…
The book sells well. 这本书销路好。
This knife cuts easily. 这刀子很好用。
2)blame, let(出租), remain, keep, rent, build
I was to blame for the accident. 我对这起事故负责。
Much work remains. 还有大量工作要做。
3) 在need, require, want, worth (形容词), deserve后
动名词必须用主动形式。
The door needs repairing.= The door needs to be
repaired. 门需要修了。
This room needs cleaning. 这房间应该打扫一下。
This book is worth reading. 这本书值得一读。
4) 特殊结构:make sb. heard / understood (使别人能听见
/理解自己),have sth. done ( 要某人做某事)。

被动形式表示主动意义

be determined, be pleased, be graduated (from), be finished,
be prepared (for), be occupied (in), get marries
He is graduated from a famous university.
他毕业于一所有名的大学。
注意: 表示同某人结婚,用marry sb. 或get married to sb. 都可。
He married a rich girl. 他娶了一个有钱的女孩。
He got married to a rich girl. 他娶了一个有钱的女孩。
7 need/want/require/worth
注意:当 need, want, require, worth(形容词)后面接doing
也可以表示被动。
Your hair wants cutting. 你的头发该理了。
The floor requires washing. 地板需要冲洗。
The book is worth reading. 这本书值得一读。

典型例题

The library needs___, but it’ll have to wait until Sunday.
A. cleaning B. be cleaned C. clean D. being cleaned
答案A. need (实意) +n /to do,need (情态)+ do,当为被动
语态时,还可need + doing. 本题考最后一种用法,选A。如有to
be clean 则也为正确答案。
典:done,"不可能已经"。must not do 不可以(用于一般现在时)。
一、 被动语态的用法:
1. 一般现在时的被动语态构成:is / am / are + 及物动词的过去分词
Our classroom is cleaned everyday.
I am asked to study hard.
Knives are used for cutting things.
2. 一般过去时的被动语态构成:was / were + 及物动词的过去分词
A new shop was built last year.
Dinosaur eggs were laid long long ago.
3. 现在完成时的被动语态构成:has / have + been + 及物动词的过去分词
This book has been translated into many languages.
Many man-made satellites have been sent up into space by many countries.
4. 一般将来时的被动语态构成:will+ be + 及物动词的过去分词
A new hospital will be built in our city.
Many more trees will be planted next year.
5. 含有情态动词的被动语态构成:情态动词+ be + 及物动词的过去分词
Young trees must be watered often.
Your mistakes should be corrected right now.
The door may be locked inside.
Your homework can be handed in tomorrow.
6. 现在进行时的被动语态构成:am / is / are + being + 及物动词的过去分词
Uncle Wang is mending my bike now.→
My bike is being repaired by Tom now.
They are planting trees over there. →
Trees are being planted over there by them.
7. 不定式的被动语态:to + be + 及物动词的过去分词
There are two books to be read. →
There are twenty more trees to be planted.
二、 怎样把主动语态改成被动语态?
把主动语态改为被动语态非常简单,可以遵循以下几个步骤:
1. 先找出谓语动词;
2. 再找出谓语动词后的宾语;
3. 把宾语用作被动语态中的主语;
4. 注意人称、时态和数的变化。
例:1. Bruce writes a letter every week. →A letter is written by Bruce every week.
2. Li Lei mended the broken bike this morning.→The broken bike was mended by Li Lei this morning.
3. He has written two novels so far.→Two novels have been written by him so far.
4. They will plant ten trees tomorrow.→Ten trees will be planted by them tomorrow.
5. Lucy is writing a letter now.→A letter is being written by Lucy now.
6. You must lock the door when you leave.→the door must be locked when you leave.
三、 使用被动语态应注意的几个问题:
1. 不及物动词无被动语态。
What will happen in 100 years.
The dinosaurs disappeared about 65 million years ago.
2. 有些动词用主动形式表示被动意义。
This pen writes well.
This new book sells well.
3. 感官动词或使役动词使用省略to的动词不定式,主动语态中不带to ,但变为被动语态时,须加上to 。
例:make somebody do something→somebody+ be +made to do something
see somebody do something→somebody +be +seen to do something
A girl saw my wallet drop when she passed by.→My wallet was seen to drop by a girl when she passed by.
The boss made the little boy do heavy work.→The little boy was made to do heavy work by the boss.
4. 如果是接双宾语的动词改为被动语态时,直接宾语(物)作主语,那么动词后要用介词,这个介词是由与其搭配的动词决定。
He gave me a book.→A book was given to me by him.
He showed me a ticket.→A ticket was shown to me by him.
My father bought me a new bike. →A new bike was bought for me by my father.
5. 一些动词短语用于被动语态时,动词短语应当看作一个整体,而不能丢掉其中的介词或副词。
We can’t laugh him. →He can’t be laugh by us.
He listens to the radio every day. →The radio is listened to by him every day.
The nurse is taking care of the sick man. →The sick man is being taken care of by the nurse.</CA>

中间语态

某些语言(比如梵语冰岛语和古希腊语)有 中间语态。中间语态在主动语态和被动语态的中间,因为主语不能被归类为主动者或被动者但有二者的要素。表现得主动但表达被动行动的不及物动词刻画了英语中的中间语态。例如,在“The casserole cooked in the oven”, cooked语法上主动但在语义上被动,属于中间语态。在古希腊语中,中间语态经常是反身的,指示主语做关于自身或为了自身的行动,比如“The boy washes himself”或“The boy washes”。它可以是及物动词也可以是不及物动词。它偶尔用在使役性意义上,比如“The father causes his son to be set free”或“The father ransoms his son”。
拉丁语中的很多异相动词代表了幸存的原始印欧语中间语态;其中很多在罗曼语言如法语西班牙语中幸存为强制性伪-反身动词。

被动语态

拉丁语

拉丁语的被动表现完全符合屈折语的特征,即采用动词的一个特定变形(inflection)。例如:“poemam legit” 他读诗歌。“poema legitur”诗歌被他读。

英语

屈折特征已经退化的英语使用迂回方式表现被动态。也就是并非利用动词的某一形式来表现被动,而是使用若干词汇的组合来形成被动态表现。具体地说,是由 be 助动词和主动词的过去分词组合而成。

汉语

汉语对被动态的使用具有两个特征:1,作为孤立语,单纯地使用主宾易位和助词“被”来实现被动;2,作为主题优势语言,汉语对被动态的使用相对于印欧语言比较谨慎。例文: 主动:狗咬了这个男人。 被动:这个男人被狗咬了。

日语

日语使用黏着的方式,通过在动词后附着被动助动词“れる・られる”(现代日语)或“る”(古典日语)来表现被动。但是由于日语也是主题优势语言,宾语出现在一个语法上为主动句的主语位置的情况也经常能见到。另外,日语还存在一种称为受害态的特殊被动表现。
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