英国心灵研究协会 百科内容来自于: 百度百科

Society for Psychical Research,通称SPR。 SPR(英国心灵研究协会)是由当时在心灵感应领域具有相当高研究成果的英国物理学者——W·巴瑞特所提倡,剑桥大学哲学系教授、同时也是伦理学学者的亨利·西季威克担任初代会长,于1882年设立至今,是最为传统的心灵研究组织之一。

英国心灵研究协会

基本信息

为了肯定心灵现象,SPR的研究目的在于以科学手段对心灵感应、催眠术、灵媒、幽灵、亡灵、通灵术神秘主义、宗教、特异功能以及其历史进行研究,并于其后的1885年,在美国成立了协会支部性质的美国心灵协会——American Society for Psychical Research,通称ASPR。在日本东京、香港台湾澳大利亚等地也成立了许多心灵调查研究所。
协会的成员都是些世界著名的人物。比如以《夏洛克·福尔摩斯》系列闻名的柯南·道尔,《爱丽丝漫游仙境》的作者刘易斯·卡罗尔,大科学家爱因斯坦,文豪马克·吐温,心理学者卡尔·荣格等等具有相当高声望的人物。
其后,由于过于偏向以科学手段来揭露心灵现象之中存在的假象,据说以道尔为首的很多人相继离开了协会。但是,协会至今仍然苦心于研究心灵现象,并一直发展了下来。目前该协会会长由英国伦敦大学教授、著名天文学家伯纳德·凯尔担任至今。
2006年播映的日本著名奇幻动漫恶灵猎人》,剧中的大部分情节便是根据英国心灵研究协会真实档案改编而成。

历任协会会长

时间
人物
职业
国籍
1882-1894
亨利·西季威克
哲学家、伦理学家、剑桥大学教授
英国
1892-1894
亚瑟·贝尔福
英国
1894-1895
威廉·詹姆斯
心理学家、哲学家、教育家
1896-1897
威廉·克鲁克斯
物理学家、化学家
英国
1905
夏尔·罗贝尔·里歇
生理学家(诺贝尔奖获得者)
1913
亨利·柏格森
哲学家(诺贝尔奖获得者)
1919
约翰·斯特拉特
物理学家、男爵
英国
2000-2004
伯纳德·凯尔 英国天文学家、伦敦大学教授 英国
2011- 理查德·布劳顿
美国
注:本表格中所列举的协会会长为不完全名单

完整版名单

1882-1884 (and 1888-1892)
  Henry Sidgwick (1838-1900): philosopher, Knightsbridge Professor of Moral Philosophy at Cambridge University 1883-1900
1885-1887
  Balfour Stewart (1827-1887): physicist, Professor of Physics at Queen's College, Manchester, from 1870, Fellow of the Royal Society from 1862
1888-1892
  Henry Sidgwick (also 1882-1884)
1893
  Arthur Balfour (1848-1930): philosopher, Prime Minister 1902-1905
1894-1895
  William James (1842-1910): American psychologist and philosopher
1896-1899
  Sir William Crookes (1832-1919): chemist and physicist, discoverer of thallium and cathode rays, inventor of radiometer
1900
  Frederic William Henry Myers (1843-1901): classical scholar and philosopher, "Of all the founder members he had perhaps the liveliest and widest-ranging mind."
1901-1903 (and 1932)
  Sir Oliver Lodge (1851-1940): physicist and mathematician, Professor of Physics and Mathematics at Liverpool from 1881, first Principal of Birmingham University
1904
  Sir William Fletcher Barrett (1845-1925): physicist; Chair of Physics at the Royal College of Science in Dublin, Fellow of the Royal Society from 1899
1905
  Charles Richet (1850-1935): French physiologist, Professor of Physiology at the Faculty of Medicine of Paris, Nobel Prize winner 1913
1906-1907
  Gerald Balfour (1853-1945): classical scholar, later politician
1908-1909 (and 1932)
  Eleanor Sidgwick (1845-1936): mathematician, closely connected with Newnham College, Cambridge (first women's college), Principal of Newnham College 1892-1910
1910
  Henry Arthur Smith (1848-1922): lawyer, business man and administrator
1911
  Andrew Lang (1844-1912): anthropologist, writer, scholar of extraordinarily wide range of learning, author of sixty published volumes, Fellow of Merton College
1912
  The Rt Reverend W. Boyd Carpenter (1841-1918): clergyman, Bishop of Ripon from 1884, Canon of Westminster from 1911
1913
  Henri Bergson (1859-1941): French philosopher, Chair of the Philosophy of History at the College de France 1900-1921
1914
  Ferdinand Canning Scott Schiller (1864-1937): philosopher; Profesor of Philosophy at the University of South California from 1929.
1915-1916 (and 1952)
  Gilbert Murray (1866-1957): classical scholar, Fellow of New College, Oxford, later Regius Professor of Greek. Founded the League of Nations Union after World War I.
1917-1918
  L. P. Jacks (1860-1955): philosopher; Professor of Philosophy at Manchester College, Oxford from 1903, Principal of the College from 1951
1919
  John William Strutt, 3rd Baron Rayleigh (1842-1919): experimental physicist, Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, from 1866; Nobel Prize winner 1904
1920-1921
  William McDougall (1871-1938): psychologist, educated at St John's College, Cambridge, became Wilde Reader in Mental Psychology at Oxford in 1905. In 1921 appointed Professor of Psychology at Harvard University, then at Duke University in 1927, where he founded the Journal of Parapsychology in 1937.
1922
  Thomas Walter Mitchell (1869-1944): physician, for many years editor of the British Journal of Medical Psychology
1923
  Camille Flammarion (1842-1925): French astronomer, President of the Astronomical Society of France
1924-1925
  John George Piddington (1869-1952): businessman
1926-1927
  Hans Driesch (1867-1941): German biologist and natural philosopher; Professor of Systematic Philosophy at Cologne University from 1919, Director of Philosophical Seminars at Leipzig from 1921
1928-1929
  Sir Lawrence J. Jones, Bt (1885-1955)
1930-1931
  Walter Franklin Prince (1863-1934): clergyman; described by Joseph Banks Rhine as 'my principal teacher in psychical research'.
1932
  Joint Presidency: Eleanor Sidgwick (see 1908-1909) and Oliver Lodge (see 1901)
1933-1934
  Edith Lyttelton (née Balfour) (1865-1948): social activist and writer
1935-1936 (and 1958-1960)
  Charlie Dunbar Broad (1887-1971): philosopher; after a distinguished academic career at several universities, he eventually became Knightsbridge Professor of Moral Philosophy at Cambridge in 1935. He had Fellowships and honorary degrees in several countries.
1937-1938
  Robert John Strutt, 4th Baron Rayleigh (1875-1947): physicist; Professor of Physics at Imperial College, London, 1908-1919, Fellow of the Royal Society from 1905
1939-1941
  Henry Habberley Price (1899-1984): philosopher; various academic posts, including Wykeham Professor of Logic
1942-1944
  Robert Henry Thouless (1894-1984): psychologist; academic posts at a number of universities, eventually becoming Reader in Educational Psychology at Cambridge
1945-1946
  George N.M. Tyrrell (1879-1952): mathematician and physicist; worked under Marconi on radio communications.
1947-1948
  William Henry Salter (1880-1969): classical scholar and lawyer; called to the Bar 1905.
1949-1950
  Gardner Murphy (1895-1979): psychologist; Hodgson Fellow at Harvard University, Professor of the Menninger Foundation from 1940, visiting Professor of Psychology at George Washington University
1950-1951
  Samuel George Soal (1890-1975): mathematician; Senior Lecturer in Mathematics at Queen Mary College after service during World War I
1952
  Gilbert Murray (see 1915-1916)
1953-1955
  F.J.M. Stratton (1881-1961): astrophysicist, Professor of Astrophysics and Director of Solar Physics Observatory at Cambridge 1928-1947, President of Gonville and Caius College at Cambridge 1945-1948
1956-1958
  Guy William Lambert (1889-1984): civil servant, served as Assistant Under-Secretary of State for War.
1958-1960
  Charlie Dunbar Broad (see 1935-1936)
1960-1961
  Henry Habberley Price (see 1939-1941)
1960-1963
  Eric Robertson Dodds (1893-1979): classical scholar, Regius Professor of Greek (Oxford)
1963-1965
  Donald James West (1924-): psychiatrist and criminologist (also 1984-1988 and 1998-1999; for full entry see 1998-1999)
1965-1969
  Sir Alister Hardy (1896-1985): zoologist; Professor of Zoology at Hull University and then Linacre Professor of Zoology at Oxford; founder of the Religious Experience Research Unit at Manchester College, Oxford
1969-1971
  William A. H. Rushton (1901-1980): physiologist, Professor at Cambridge
1971-1974
  Clement William Kennedy Mundle (1916-1989): philosopher; Head of Philosophy Departments first at Dundee University, then at University College of North Wales
1974-1976
  John Beloff (1920-2006): psychologist; Senior Lecturer in Psychology at the University of Edinburgh; encouraged post-graduate studies in psychical research and was instrumental in establishing the Koestler Unit at Edinburgh.
1976-1979 (and 1981-1982)
  Arthur J. Ellison (1920-2000): technologist; after a career in industry taught at Queen Mary College, from 1972 Head of the Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering at the City University, London.
1980
  Joseph Banks Rhine (1895-1980): biologist and parapsychologist, writer, founder of Parapsychology Laboratory at Duke University, USA
1980
  Louisa Ella Rhine (1891-1983): parapsychologist, writer, co-worker with her husband, J.B. Rhine
1981-1983
  Arthur J. Ellison (see 1976-1979)
1984-1988
  Donald J. West: psychiatrist and criminologist (also 1963-1965, and 1998-1999; for full entry see 1998-1999)
1988-1989
  Ian Stevenson, M.D. (1918-2007): Director of Division of Personality Studies, Carlson Professor of Psychiatry, University of Virginia
1989-1992
  Alan Gauld: psychologist, retired Reader in Psychology, University of Nottingham.
1992-1995
  Archie Roy (1924-2012): astronomer; Professor Emeritus of Astronomy, University of Glasgow, founder of the Scottish SPR in 1987
1995-1998
  David Fontana (1934-2010): psychologist; Professor of Educational Psychology, Universities of Minho and of Algarve, Portugal; Distinguished Visiting Fellow, University of Wales, Cardiff
1998-1999
  Donald J. West (also 1963-1965 and 1984-1988): psychologist and criminologist; Former Director of the Institute of Criminology, Professor of Clinical Criminology at Cambridge, Fellow of Darwin College, Cambridge
2000-2004
  Bernard Carr: Professor in Mathematics and Astronomy, Queen Mary & Westfield College, London University
2005-2007
  John Poynton: Emeritus Professor of Biology, University of Natal; Scientific Fellow of the Zoological Society of London; Associate of the Natural History Museum, London.
2007-2011
Deborah Delanoy: Professor of Psychology, University of Northampton; Research Director for the School of Behaviour Studies, Director of the Centre for the Study of Anomalous Psychological Processes, Northampton.
2011-
Richard Broughton: former Director of what is now the Rhine Research Center, lecturer, author of numerous scientific papers and an acclaimed book on parapsychology.
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