短语动词 百科内容来自于: 百度百科

短语动词是由动词加介词、副词或其他词构成的词组,其作用和动词差不多。有些短语动词相当于及物动词,有些则相当于不及物动词。

短语动词

英语中一些常用动词常可以与某些介词、副词或其他词构成意义不同的习语(idioms)。例如:
look at (看,考虑),look after (照料),look for (寻找),look into (调查), look over (检查,忽略),look out (当心) 、watch out (当心) put on (穿上)、take off( 脱掉、起飞、成名)、 hand in (上交) 、 look up (查看),look down (轻视),look forward to (期望)、put aside (把什么放置在....;存储、储蓄) 、set up (建立)等。这些组合一般只作为一个整体使用,因此被称为短语动词。
本章分四小节:
1. Verb + Preposition;
2. Verb + Adverb;
3. Verb + Noun/Pronoun + Preposition ;
4. Verb + Adverb + Preposition。

种类

动词+介词

1 动词+介词(Verb + preposition)
这类短语动词的宾语不论是名词还是人称代词,都要放在短语动词的后面。例如:
He wants to check with his secretary before he signs the paper.
在签署该项文件之前,他想跟他的秘书商议一下。
He has been asked to account for his absence.
已要求他说明缺席的原因。
The murderer did not reckon on the policeman's finding the gun.
杀人犯没料到警察会发现那把枪的。
The marquis will succeed to the dukedom at his father's death.
在其死后,侯爵就将继承公爵的爵位。
"不及物动词+介词"具有原来的字面含义 a),或一种或者多种引申的意义 b)。例如:
a):
to go into the laboratory (进入实验室);
to arrive at the station(到达车站);
to live (或者exist) on food (靠食物维持生命)。
b) :
to go into the figures carefully (仔细检查数字);
to go into the question (调查这个问题);
to go into that scheme (参与那项计划);
to go into operation (开始运转);
to go into a subject (研究某个题目);
to come to a close (结束);
to come to a decision (作出决定);
to come to four million (达到四百万);
to come to life (活跃起来);
to come to a full stop (骤然停止);
to come into use (被使用);
to come into effect (生效,实行);
to come into being (形成,产生)。
a)系列中动词作其伴生词面意义,与介词有固定关系,属于介词动词,而 b)系列中,动词和介词在一起构成一个习惯性的,常常是比喻性的语义单位,属于短语动词, b)系列中的动词一般都允许有相应的被动态。例如:
The important conclusion was arrived at yesterday.
重要的结论在昨天被确定。
This body is acted on by three forces.
这个物体受三个力的作用。
He is a man to be depended on.
他是个靠得住的人。
而值得注意的是,有的短语动词却不能用被动语态。例如:consist of,serve as等。

动词+副词

2 动词+副词(Verb + adverb)
这类短语动词,有的相当于一个及物动词。例如:
to turn up the radio (把收音机开大);
to turn up the soil (把地翻起);
to take up water (吸水);
to take up a new tool (拿起新工具);
to take up this question (谈到这个问题);
to take up space (占据空间)。
She was extremely lucky: when her great-uncle died,she came into[继承(遗产)] a fortune.
I hope I shall be able to clean off(把…清除掉) these black marks.
They were so far away that I couldn't make out their faces clearly.
他们离得那么远,我没法把他们的脸辨认清楚。
Trains stop here in order to pick up passengers only.
必须注意,本组短语动词一般都可以构成被动语态。例如:
Trains stop here in order that passengers are picked up only.
另外,这类短语动词相当于及物动词时,若宾语为名词,一般既可放在短语动词之后,也可放在动词和副词之间。若短语动词的直接宾语为代词,则位于动词与副词之间。例如:
to give it (指 heat) out 放出它(热量);
to keep them (指 the molecules) apart 使它们(分子)保持分离
但是某些表示及物的短语动词却具有自己的固定模式:不允许随便将副词放在宾语之后(除非是宾语为代词);有时有的不容许随便将副词放在宾语之前。例如:
They had given up hope. 此句不能变为:They had given hope up.
Get that parcel off right away! (寄出) 此句因为歧义的缘故不能把副词off放在宾语之前。及物短语动词get…off与动词get后面跟介词off意思不同。例如:
Get off that stool.
it's just been painted!
Get off that parcel right away!
I switched the light on and off.
I switched on and off the light.
Crying my eyes out. 这个句子不能变为:crying out my eyes.
I was laughing my head off. 这个句子不能变为:I was laughing off my head.
Sobbing my head out. 这个句子不能变为:sobbing out my heart.
这种短语动词的固定现象往往出现在短语动词与宾语之间,具有牢固的习语关系,此时意思同时从字面意义转向比喻意义。短语动词在这些夸张语中成了固定的习惯用法。此上这几种情况必须要加以注意。从例句可以看出短语动词与动词和副词结构具有不同的意义,因此我们必须加以区分。一般可用以下的三个标准。
1)短语动词无法孤立地根据动词和副词的意义预测结合后的意义。例如:
catch on (理解),
give in (投降),
blow up (爆炸)
但在动词和副词的自由组合中,动词作正常的不及物动词,而副词则有自己的意义。例如:
He walked past. (= past the object/place)
I waded across. (= across the river/water/etc.)
past,across 是副词,它们的作用等于一个方向介词短语。动词和副词在意义上可以分开,因为可以换词:例句中的waded across 中的wade,我们可以用walk,run,swim,jump,fly等来替换;而across,我们则可用in,through,over,up,down等来替换。
2)在动词和副词的自由组合中,经常可以在副词和动词之间加上一个修饰性副词right(有时可用straight,例如:
Go right / straight on.
Walk straight in.
Drink right in.
而插入语在不同程度上,对短语动词来说,却是不可接受的。例如不能说:
The prisoner broke right down.
She turned right up at last.
3)可以将副词放在动词的前面,同时将主语-动词倒装(主语为代词则不能倒装):
Out came the sun.
Up you come.
On we drove into the night.
但短语动词却不能这样,不能说:
Up blew the sun.
Up it blew.
这类动词有的相当于一个不及物动词。例如:
to flow off 流走;流下;
to come round 苏醒;
to look up 抬头看;兴旺;
to ring off 挂断电话
The picnic came off (举行)
at last after being twice postponed.
Do you know the reason why the automobile breaks down (出故障)?
It was no surprise when we were told that our grandfather had passed away. (去世).
Their plans for a big party fell through (完全失败).

动词+名词/代词+介词

3 动词+名词/代词+介词(Verb + noun/pronoun + preposition)
在这类结构中间的名词前有时可加冠词或形容词,例如:
take (an active) part in;
put an end to;
to lay the foundation for industry (给工业奠定基础);
to take an interest in this problem (对该问题感兴趣);
to play a role in machine-building industry (在机械制造工业中起作用);
to make (occasional) mention of these theories [(时常)提到这些理论工作者];
to take care of production (负责管理生产);
to keep somebody from smoking (阻止某人抽烟);
to protect somebody from danger (保护某人免受危险);
但是有的却不能随便加形容词或限定词。例如:
to cross words with; give rise to(引起);
keep pace with(与…并进);
keep tabs on(注意,记录)等。
In some countries,people are making use of the heat in the center of the earth.
They have made a (terrible) mess of the house.
Did you make (any) allowance for inflation?
Mary took (good) care of the children.
The gang robbed her of her necklace.
I accused him of the crime.
这类短语动词常可用于被动语态,并且可以有两种形式。
The heat in the center of the earth is being made use of in some countries.
Use is being made of the heat in the center of the earth in some countries.
A (terrible) mess has been made of the house.
The house has been made a (terrible) mess of.
Has (any) allowance been made for inflation?
Has inflation been made allowance for?
(Good) care was taken of the children.
The children were taken (good) care of.
直接宾语可变为被动式动词短语的主语,例如:
She was robbed of her necklace (by the gang).
He was accused of the crime (by me).
但是有的只有一种被动式,例如:
The lifeboat was suddenly caught sight of.
还有的不能用于被动式,例如:
to take part in,
to find application in等有的没有任何被动式的。例如:
He prides himself on his craftsmanship. 直接宾语为反身代词,没有任何被动式。

动词+副词+介词

4 动词+副词+介词(Verb + adverb + preposition)
to lead up to this subject(渐渐引到这个题目);
to do away with the old method(废弃旧方法) ;
Young adults must break away from their parents' control in order to achieve independence and
maturity.
为了达到自立和思想成熟,年轻人必须摆脱父母亲对他们的支配。
Have the lawyers checked up on the court proceedings very carefully?
律师们是否打算把法庭的记录仔细审查一遍呢?
There are some things that teachers will not put up with.
有些事情教师是不会容忍的。
You'll have to work very hard to make up for the time you lost.
你要努力工作,以弥补失去的时间。
这类短语动词常可以用于被动语态。
Their parents' control must be broken away from by young adults in order to achieve independence and maturity.
Have the court proceedings been checked up by the lawyers?
There are some things that will not be put up with by teachers.
The time you lost will have to be made up for by you.
有的动词+副词+介词要求跟有直接宾语。例如:
to fix N up with(安排约会);
to put N down to(归因于);
to take N out on(拿…出气);
to let N in on(透露秘密);
to fob N off with(欺骗);
例如:
Can you possibly fix me up with your manager this week?
这星期你能安排我和你们经理见面吗?
They were taking it out on one another because of their hopeless dissatisfaction.
他们因为没有希望获得满足而彼此恶声恶气地拿对方泄怒。
He put a good part of his shyness down to the dominating influence of his mother.
他的大部分害羞可归于他母亲对他的控制影响。
I'll let you in on a secret.
我要把一个秘密泄露于你。
此类短语动词的被动形式要求其直接宾语变为被动式动词短语的主语。被动形式如下:
Can I be possibly fixed up with your manager this week (by you)?
It was being taken out on one another because of their hopeless dissatisfaction (by them)?
A good part of his shyness was put down to his dominating influence of his mother (by him).
You'll be let in on a secret (by me).

区别

及物动词的区别
有些动词,既可作及物动词,也可作不及物动词,但用作“及物动词”是一种意思,而用作“不及物动词+介词”是另一种意思。例如:
She answered me.她回答了我。
She will answer for his safety.她要为她的安全负责。
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