悬浮物 百科内容来自于: 百度百科

悬浮物(suspended solids )指悬浮在水中的固体物质,包括不溶于水中的无机物、有机物及泥砂、黏土、微生物等。水中悬浮物含量是衡量水污染程度的指标之一。悬浮物是造成水浑浊的主要原因。水体中的有机悬浮物沉积后易厌氧发酵,使水质恶化。中国污水综合排放标准分3级,规定了污水和废水中悬浮物的最高允许排放浓度,中国地下水质量标准和生活饮用水卫生标准对水中悬浮物以浑浊度为指标作了规定。

化学解释

水中的悬浮物质是颗粒直径约在10-0.1um之间的微粒。肉眼可见。这些微粒主要是由泥沙、粘土、原生动物、藻类、细菌、病毒、以及高分子有机物等组成,常常悬浮在水流之中,水产生的浑浊现象,也都是由此类物质所造成。

工具书解释

能在海水中悬浮相当长时间的固体颗粒。有时也称为悬浮固体或悬浮胶体。它分有机和无机两大部分。有机部分大多数是碎屑颗粒,它们是由碳水化合物(见碳水化合物)、蛋白质(见蛋白质)、类脂物(见类脂物)等所组成。无机部分包括陆源矿物碎屑(例如石英、长石、碳酸盐和粘土)、水生矿物(例如沉淀的海绿石和钙十字石等硅酸盐类、碳。

学术解释

1、此悬浮物定义是个相对概念.从理论上讲如果水体透明度较高悬浮物的含量不会高而在含盐废水悬浮物的实际监测分析中由于分析方法不完善有时悬浮物会出现较高含量
2、悬浮物(SS):悬浮物是指水中无机的和有机的颗粒物,实际上也包括可沉降的固体颗粒物.悬浮物常常成为微生物隐蔽的载体
3、悬浮物是指不能通过滤器的固体物.用中(2)将称至恒重的滤纸放入布氏漏斗中,用速定量滤纸过滤水样,经103~105C烘干恒重蒸馏水冲洗滤纸,以除去可溶性物质,并用搅拌后得到总不可滤残渣(悬浮物)含量
4、悬浮物是指不溶于水的砂、粘土微粒和动植物有机体残骸等等.水中含有杂质对锅炉保养和蒸汽的蒸发十分有害的易结生水垢使金属腐蚀过烧引起泡沫及汽水井腾
5、悬浮物是指土壤浸提液中所含的粘土矿物、粉砂、腐殖质和铁铝水合氧化物等.有机物、无机物在悬浮物水相界面进行着一系列的迁移转化过程,如吸附解吸作用、沉淀溶解作用等
6、悬浮物是指滤剩于滤器并在103~105℃烘至恒重的固体物.地面水中存在的悬浮物使水体浑浊,降低透明度,影响水生生物的呼吸和代谢,甚至造成河道阻塞.因此,在水和污水处理中,测定悬浮物具有特定意义
7、0.45μm孔径的滤膜能阻留水中的悬浮物和大部分细菌所以通常把通过0.45μm孔径过滤器的定义为“溶解的”和“可溶的”而被阻留的部分则称为悬浮物
8、H1501525ZP天然水中的杂质,按其颗粒大小的不同可分成三类:颗粒最大的称为悬浮物.其次是胶体.最小的是离子和分子,即溶解物质.1.悬浮物悬浮物的颗粒较大,在水中不稳定,容易除去水发生浑浊现象,主要是由此类物质所造成的
9、“总不可滤残渣”指截留在滤纸上的全部残渣,即称为悬浮物.在环境监测分析过程中,这种方法看似简单,但操作步骤烦琐而且要保证测定准确并不容易掌握
10、水中杂质按其颗粒大小可分为三类:颗粒最大的称为悬浮物.其次称为胶体物.最小的是分子和离子称为溶解物.上述杂质如未经处理或处理不妥而进入锅炉则会对锅炉的安全经济运行带来各种危害
便携式悬浮物测定仪

便携式悬浮物测定仪

悬浮物的测定

○(Determination of the weight of suspended solids water quality law)●

主题内容和适用范围

本标准规定了水中悬浮物的测定。
本标准适用于地面水、地下水,也适用于生活污水和工业废水中悬浮物测定。

定义

水质中的悬浮物是指水样通过孔径为0.45μm的滤膜,截留在滤膜上并于103~105℃烘干至恒重的物质。

试剂

蒸馏水或同等纯度的水。

仪器

4.1 常用实验室仪器和以下仪器。
4.2 全玻璃微孔滤膜过滤器。
4.3 GN-CA滤膜、孔径0.45μm、直径60mm。
4.4 吸滤瓶、真空泵
4.5 无齿扁咀镊子。

采样及样品贮存

5.1 采样
所用聚乙烯瓶或硬质玻璃瓶要用洗涤剂洗净。再依次用自来水和蒸馏水冲洗干净。在采样之前,再用即将采集的水样清洗三次。然后,采集具有代表性的水样500~1 000mL,盖严瓶塞。
注:漂浮或浸没的不均匀固体物质不属于悬浮物质,应从水样中除去。
5.2 样品贮存
采集的水样应尽快分析测定。如需放置,应贮存在4℃冷藏箱中,但最长不得超过七天。
注:不能加入任何保护剂,以防破坏物质在固、液间的分配平衡。

步骤

6.1 滤膜准备
用扁咀无齿镊子夹取微孔滤膜放于事先恒重的称量瓶里,移入烘箱中于103~105℃烘干半小时后取出置干燥器内冷却至室温,称其重量。反复烘干、冷却、称量,直至两次称量的重量差≤0.2mg。将恒重的微孔滤膜正确的放在滤膜过滤器(4.1)的滤膜托盘上,加盖配套的漏斗,并用夹子固定好。以蒸馏水湿润滤膜,并不断吸滤。
6.2 测定
量取充分混合均匀的试样100mL抽吸过滤。使水分全部通过滤膜。再以每次10mL蒸馏水连续洗涤三次,继续吸滤以除去痕量水分。停止吸滤后,仔细取出载有悬浮物的滤膜放在原恒重的称量瓶里,移入烘箱中于103~105℃下烘干一小时后移入干燥器中,使冷却到室温,称其重量。反复烘干、冷却、称量,直至两次称量的重量差≤0.4mg为止。
注:滤膜上截留过多的悬浮物可能夹带过多的水份,除延长干燥时间外,还可能造成过滤困难,遇此情况,可酌情少取试样。滤膜上悬浮物过少,则会增大称量误差,影响测定精度,必要时,可增大试样体积。一般以5~100mg悬浮物量做为量取试样体积的实用范围。

结果的表示

悬浮物含量C(mg/L)按下式计算:
式中:C——水中悬浮物浓度,mg/L;
A——悬浮物+滤膜+称量瓶重量,g;
B——滤膜+称量瓶重量,g;
V——试样体积,mL。
附加说明:
本标准由国家环保局标准处技术提出。
本标准由烟台市环境监测中心站负责起草。
本标准主要起草人李长海、王文法。
本标准委托中国环境监测总站负责解释。

英文版

1. Applicable scope
It is used to test the SS in Water
It can be used for testing the SS in the surface or underground water, also can be used to test domestic water and industrial waste water.
2 Definition
The suspended substance is the stuff which is left on the filter film after being filtered with the hole diameter of um0.45 and has been dried in 103 to 105℃ condition to standing weight.
3 Reagent
Distilled water or the water with same purity
4 Apparatus
4.1 Normal lab apparatus plus below ones
4.2 Glass type micro film filter
4.3 GN-CA filter film, hole diameter 0.45um, Diameter 60mm.
4.4 Suction bottle, vacuum pump
4.5 Flat type tweezer
5 Sampling and sample storage
5.1 Sampling
The polyethylene bottle or hard glass bottle should be cleaned with detergent and then washed by tap water and distilled water respectively. Before sampling, it should be cleaned with the sample water 3 times. Then representative water sample should be taken at the volume of 500 to 1000ml, cover the cap tightly.
Note: The non-consistent solid material floating or submerged can not be regarded as SS, which should be removed from the water sample.
5.2 Sample storage
The water sample should be analyzed ASAP. If it needs to be stored for some time, it should be stored in the refrigerator at 4 ℃. But the duration can not be longer than 7 days.
Note: It is not allowed to add any protection agent to avoid the damage on the balance of solid and liquid phase.
6. Procedure
6.1 Filtering film preparation
Firstly, take the microporous film and put it on the standing weight bottle. Then it will be dried in the oven for half an hour at the temperature of 103 to 105℃. After that, it will be moved out to cool in the dryer until its temperature drops to room temperature. It should be dried, cooled and weighted repeatedly until the weight difference between two subsequent weighing is less than 0.2mg. Then the microporous film at constant weight should be correctly put on the film support tray and matching hopper should be equipped. Then it should be fastened with clamp. Wet the film with the distilled water and filtration and suction should be continuous.
6.2 Test
It is to suck 100ml of homogeneously mixed sample for filtering to get the water running through the microporous film. Next , wash it 3 times consecutively with 10ml of distilled water each time. Continue suction and filtration until getting the residual water away. After stopping filtering, put the film with SS left on top in the weighing bottle and then put them in the oven with the temperature of 103 to 105℃ for 1 hr. Then take it to the dryer to cool down to room temperature. Following step is to weigh it. The drying, cooling, and weighing should be repeated until the weight difference of two consecutive weightings is less than 0.4mg.
Note: Excessive SS on the top of microporous film may contain surplus moisture, which will increase the difficulty of filtering besides longer drying time. In that case, we can reduce the sampling volume slightly. On another hand, less SS on the film will also raise the weighing error and affect the measurement precision. thus, sampling volume should be increased correspondingly. Normally the sampling is done in the sample ranging from 5 to 100mg of SS.
7 Result calculation:
SS content:
In which, C: SS consistency
g;A—Weight of SS+ film+ weighing bottle
B: Weight of film+ weighing bottle
V: Sample volume
Note:
This standard is provided by National environmental protection bureau.
It is drafted by Yantai Environmental Monitoring Center.
It is mainly drafted by Mr Li Changhai and Wang Wenfa.
China Environmental Monitoring Center is responsible for the explanation for this standard.
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