强调句 百科内容来自于: 百度百科

基本语法 强调句是一种修辞,是人们为了表达自己的意愿或情感而使用的一种形式。

基本定义

强调句(The Emphatic Pattern)是一种修辞,是人们为了表达自己的意愿情感而使用的一种形式。通过各种方式对句子中的某个部分进行强调,从而起到修辞的作用。 英语常用的强调结构是"It is (was)+被强调部分(主语宾语状语)+who (that)..."。一般说来,被强调部分指人时,用who;指事物时用that,但that也可以指人。在美国英语中指事物时常用which来代替that。

常用句型

It is/ was + 被强调部分(通常是主语宾语状语)+ that/ who(当强调主语且主语指人)+ 其他部分。
例子 It was yesterday that he met Li Ping.
同上,只是把is/ was提到it前面。
例子 Was it yesterday that he met Li Ping?
3.特殊疑问句的强调句型
强调部分(通常是疑问代词疑问副词)+ is/ was + it + that/ who + 其他部分?
例子 When and where was it that you were born?
4.not … until …句型强调
A.句型为:It is/ was not until + 被强调部分 + that + 其他部分
普通句:He didn't go to bed until/ till his wife came back.
强调句:It was not until his wife came back that he went to bed.
B. 注意:
句型只用until,不用till。但如果不是强调句型,till, until可通用;因为句型中It is/ was not...已经是否定句了,that后面的从句要用肯定句,切勿再用否定句了。
A. It is/ was...that ...结构不能强调谓语,如果需要强调谓语时,用助动词do/ does或did
Do sit down. 务必请坐。
Do be careful when you cross the street. 过马路时,务必(千万)要小心啊!
B. 注意:
此种强调只用do/ does和did,没有别的形式;过去时用did,后面的谓语动词用原形。

强调形式

常见到的强调形式,共有以下七类:
⒈用do\does\did + V可表强调
Some people do believe that nuclear power poses a threat to the world peace.
⒉adv或adj可表强调:Never \ only\ Very
This is the very question that deserves careful analysis.
Taking part-time jobs is never without drawbacks.
⒋what引导的主从可表强调
What really matters is cooperation.
⒌倒装可表强调(凡是倒装都可以表示强调)
Little do people take into account the seriousness of this problem.
Nothing is more imperative than to learn from the past.
强调句型可表强调
It is \was +被强调部份+ that \ who +原句剩余部份
It is stability that destroys people’s ambition and barricades people’s steps.

语法结构

强调句的十种结构:
1.用助动词“do(does/did)+动词原形”来表示强调
Do write to me when you get there.你到那儿后务必给我来信。
2.用形容词very,only,single,such等修饰名词或形容词来加强语气:
How dare you buy such expensive jewels?你怎么敢买这么贵的宝石呢?
3.用ever,never,very,just等副词和badly,highly,really等带有-l y的副词来进行强调
I really don’t know what to do next.我的确不知道下一步该怎么做。
4.用in the world,on earth,at all等介词短语可以表达更强的语气(常用于疑问句):
Where in the world could he be?他到底会在哪儿?
5.用感叹句来表示强烈的感情突出说话人情感
How interesting a story it is!这是一个多么有趣的故事啊!
6.用重复来表示强调
Why!why!The cage is empty!啊!啊!箱子是空的。
7.用倒装句(也就是将要强调的句子或被强调的部分置于句首)来加强语气:
On the table were some flowers.桌上摆着一些花。(强调地点)
8.用强调句型:“It is(was)+被强调的部分+that(who)+原句其它部分”来强调说话人意愿
It was on Monday night that all this happened.所有这一切发生在周一晚上。
9.用If来表示强调
1)If从句+I don’t know who/what,etc.does/is/has,etc.
主语部分也可以用nobody does/is/has,etc.或everybody does/is/has,et c.来代替(这里的if从句往往是正话反说,反话正说):
If he can’t do it,I don’t know who can.要是他做不了这件事,我不知道还有谁能做。(强调只有他能做) If Jim is a coward,everybody is.要是吉姆是个胆小鬼,那么人人都是胆小鬼。(强调吉姆不是胆小鬼)
2)if从句+it be主句(此用法可看成是第8中强调句型的变形,即把所要强调的内容放在it be的后面,把其它内容放在由if引导的从句中):
If anyone knew the truth,it was Tom.如果说谁了解事实的真相,那便是汤姆。
10.用破折号黑体字也可以表示强调,加强语气
It’s because of hard work—ten years of hard work.那是因为艰苦的工作--十年艰苦的工作!
He began the work in late May.他在五月底开始的这项工作。(强调时间)

注意事项

that后的强调句如果是原因状语从句,从句只能用because引导,不能用since,as或why。
It was because the water had risen that they could not cross the river。

句型练习

与主语从句的比较

1. ---Were all three people in the car injured in the accident?---No,___ only the two passengers who got hurt.
A. it was B. there is C. it were D. there was
2. ---Who is making so much noise in the garden? --- ___ the children.
A. It is B. They are C. That is D . There are
3. It was ___ she was about to go out ____ the telephone rang.
A. when ; that B. so; that C. before; then D. when; before
4. It was ___ he said ___ disappointed me.
A. what; that B. that; what C. that; when D. it; when
5.____ that silver is not widely used as a conductor?
A. Why is B. Is it why C. Why is it D. Why is that
6.---I can’t find Mr. Smith .Where did you meet him this morning?--- It was in the hotel ___ he stated.
A. that B which C. the one D. where
7. It was in the small house ___ was built with stones by his father ___ he spent his childhood.
A. which; that B, that ;where C, which; which D. that; which
8. It was ___ it was raining so hard that we had to stay at home all day.
A. since B .for C. as D. because
9. Is ____ three hours ____ the boy ___family is poor to come to school on foot?
A .it ;that; whose B. it; that it takes; whose C. it for ;that it takes; whose D. it; when ;that
10. his wife left him without saying goodbye.
A. that B .which C .when D. in which
11. It is a winter night ___he spent with me last night.
A. that B. where C. as D .when
12It is the young man ___ looked for ___ caught the murderer.
A. that; who B. that; they C. they ;that D they ;which
13. It was ____ my teacher worked ____ I work hard.
A. where; that B. where; where C .that; that D. that ;where
14. It was evening__we reached the little town of Winchester.
A that B. until C. since D. before
15. It was until dark ___ he found ___ he thought was the correct way to solve the problem.
A. that; what B. that; that C. when; what D. when; that
16. It was until last year that he ___.
A. left school for a new start
B .came to realize the importance of learning English.
C. worked as an English teacher at a middle school
D .set out to build a new house of his town.
17、It is the ability to do the job ____ matters ,not where you come from or what you are.
A. one B. that C .what D. it
18. I don’t know ____ that you stay here.
A. how long it is B. how long is it C. it is how long D. is it how long
19、.It was _____ that caused him to serve dinner an hour later than usual.
A. we being late B. our being late C. we were too late D. because we were late
20.---what was the party like?---Wonderful. It’s years _____ I enjoyed myself much.
A. after B. before C .that D. since
从句辨析强调句将句子中的it is / was …that同时省去,句子仍然成立;而主语从句将that与后面部分代替it,成立。如:
(1) It is Li Lei’s brother that you met in the street yesterday. 你昨天在街上所见到的就是李蕾的兄弟。
本句若将It is 及 that同时省去为:You met Li Lei’s brother in the street yesterday. 句子同样成立,因此前面的句子是强调句型
(2) It is exciting that we have succeeded in sending up Shenzhou V. 我们成功地发射了神舟五号这件事情真令人兴奋。
本句若将It is 及 that同时省去为:We have succeeded exciting in sending up Shenzhou V. 显然句子错误,因此,前面句子不是强调句型,而是主语从句

与定语从句的比较

强调句中的It没有实际意义,It be与that可同时被省略;而定语从句中的It是主语,It be与that不可同时省略;
强调句型中be的时态须跟后面句子的时态相一致;而定语从句中主句谓语动词be的时态须由主句的时间确定
强调句将句子中的that不能省略,并且即使前面的名词是事物时,也不能将that换成which;而定语从句中的that作宾语时可被省略,并且当先行词是事物时可用which代替。
◎当it be后面的时间、地点名词作主语宾语表语时,引导词可用that / which;而作其他成分时,引导词须用when / which。如:
(1) It is an English book (that / which) I bought yesterday. 它是我昨天买的书。(本句是对What is that?问句的回答,that所引导的是定语从句,that可被省略)
It was the English book that I bought yesterday. 昨天我所卖的就是这本书。(本句相当于对I bought the English book yesterday中an English book进行强调)
(2) It was a room where we used to have meetings. 它是我们过去常在开会的房子。(where 所引导的从句对前面的room进行说明,它是定语从句)
It was in the room that we used to have meetings. 过去我们开会就在这间房子里。(in the room是被强调的部分,本句是强调句型)
(3) It is a day when the people celebrate their victory. 这是人们庆祝他们的胜利的日子。 (when所引导的从句对a day进行说明,是定语从句)
It was on that day that people celebrated their victory. 就在那一天,人们庆祝了他们的胜利。(强调on October 1, 1949)

与状语从句的比较

状语从句句首的It本身就是句子的主语;而强调句首的It不作任何成分也没有实际意义。
◎状语从句的连接副词that及句子前面的It be不能去掉
状语从句引导词可以是when / where,而强调句型中的that不能用其他词代替。如:
(1) It is such an interesting book that we all like it very much. 它是一本如此有趣的书,我们大家都非常喜欢。(结果状语主从复合句)
It is such an interesting book that we all like very much. 我们大家都非常喜欢的就是一本如此有趣的书。(强调such an interesting book)
(比较:It is such an interesting book as we all like very much. 这就是我们大家都非常喜欢的有趣的书。定语从句)
(2) It was already morning when he woke up. 当他醒来时,已经是早晨了。(时间主从复合句)
It was the next morning that he woke up. 就在第二天早晨他醒来了。(强调the next morning)
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