否定句 百科内容来自于: 百度百科

表示否定的句子。必须有否定词,古代汉语中否定词可以是副词“不”、“弗”、“毋”、“勿”、“未”、“否”、“非”,可以是动词如“无”。

分类

(1)一般否定句

I don't know this. No news is good news.
There is no person(smoking)/not a person/not any person(smoking)in the house.

(2)特指否定

He went to his office, not to see him.
I am sorry for not coming on time.
I don't think/believe/suppose/feel/imagine you are right.

(3)部分否定

All the answers are not right
All is not gold that glitters
I don't know all of them.
I can't see everybody/everything.
Both of them are not right.

(4)全体否定

None of my friends smoke.
I can see nothing/nobody.
Neither of them is right.
Nothing can be so simple as this.

(5)延续否定

You didn't see him, neither/nor did I.
You don't know, I don't know either.
He doesn't know English, let alone/to say nothing of/not to speak of(更不用说)French.

(6)半否定句

We seldom/hardly/scarcely/barely hear such fine singing.
I know little English. I saw few people.

(7)双重否定

You can't make something out of nothing.
What's done cannot be undone.
There is no sweet without sweat.
No gain without pains.
I can't help /keep/ laughing whenever I hear it.
No man is so old but(that)he can learn.

(8)排除否定

Everyone is ready except you.
He did nothing but play.
But for your help, I couldn't do it.

(9)加强否定

I won't do it at all.
I can't see it any more.
He is no longer a boy.

否定转移的形式与用法

一、动词的否定转移
1.形式上否定主句的谓语,实际上是否定从句的谓语
当动词“think”、“believe”、“suppose”、“imagine”、“expect”、“feel”的主语是第一人称,谓语动词为没有任何副词修饰的一般现在时,它们的否定式实际上是对宾语从句的否定。表示说话者提出一种委婉的看法或主张。如:
I think that he will help us.——I don’t think that he will help us. 我认为它不会帮助我们。
I believe that he is right.——I don’t believe that he is right. 我认为他不对。
I suppose that he likes it.——I don’t suppose that he likes it. 我想他不喜欢它。
2. 形式上否定谓语动词,实际上否定复合宾语
当动词“think”、“believe”、“suppose”、“imagine”、“expect”、“feel”、“find”的主语是第一人称、谓语动词为没有任何副词修饰的一般现在时,它们前面的否定式实际上是对复合宾语的否定。表示说话者所提出的一种委婉的看法或主张。如:
I think math difficult. — I don’t think math difficult. 我认为数学不难。
I find the story interesting. — I don’t find the story interesting. 我认为这个故事没有趣。
I expect so. —I don’t expect so. 我认为不会。
注意:动词“think”、“believe”、“suppose”、“imagine”、“expect”、“feel”在下列情况下,否定不转移:
(1)这些动词跟其他另一个动词一起做并列谓语时,否定不转移。如:
I believe and hope he won’t do that. 我相信并且也希望他将不会那样做。
I feel and admit that we are not foolish. 我觉得并且也承认我们并不愚蠢。
(2)用于疑问句时,否定不转移。如:
Do you think it is not going to rain? 你认为天不会下雨吗?
Don’t you believe that he has done a good thing? 难道你不相信他做了一件好事?
(3)用作插入语时,否定不转移。如:
Li Lei, I think, won’t be angry with you. 我想李蕾不会生你的气。
Tom, I suppose, won’t be against it. 我猜想汤姆不会反对。
Mike, I believe, hasn’t seen the film. 我认为迈克没有看这场电影。
(4)动词前有其他副词修饰时,否定不转移。如:
I really don’t think it’s necessary for us to go there now. 我的确不认为我们有必要去那儿。
I feel strongly that he shouldn’t do such a thing. 我强烈地认为他不应该做那样的事。
(5)动词为非一般现在时或主语不是第一人称时,否定不转移。
I thought that he wouldn’t come back soon. 我原以为他不会回来得这么快。
She didn’t believe that he became a good boy. 她不相信它变成了一个好孩子。
He thinks that he isn’t fit for the job. 他认为他不适合这件工作。
He doesn’t believe that what we told him is true. 他不相信我们告诉他的事是真的。
(6)当宾语从句中含的否定为“not……at all”、“not a little”、“not a few”、“not enough”、“can’t help”等固定搭配时,否定不转移。如:
I think that he doesn’t know it at all. 我想他对那一点也不知道。
I suppose that it is not enough to remember the words if you want to learn the language well. 我认为如果你想把这门语言学好,那么只记单词是不够的。
I believe that you can’t help singing our national anthem when you win the first place in the Olympic Games. 我相信当你在奥运会上获得第一名时你会情不自禁地唱起国歌来。
(7)当宾语从句中含“no”、“nothing”、“nobody”、“nowhere”、“hardly”、“seldom”、“little”、“few”等否定词或半否词时,否定不转移。如:
I believe that nothing can make me give it up. 我想任何事情也不能使我放弃。
I think that no one can escape if the ship sinks in the sea. 我认为如果这艘船沉入海底的话,那么谁也逃不掉。
I suppose that he is a man of few words. 我猜想他是一个言语不多的人。
二、语的否定转移
有些句子形式上否定谓语动词,实际上是对句子后面状语进行否定。如:
Let’s not talk about it here. 我们别在这里谈吧。
Don’t read in the sun. 不要在阳光下看书。
Don’t talk with your mouth full of food. 不要口里含着食物说话。
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