分词 百科内容来自于: 百度百科

分词就是具有动词及形容词二者特征的词,尤指以-ing或-ed,-d,-t,-en或-n结尾的英语动词性形容词,具有形容词功能,同时又表现各种动词性特点,如时态、语态、带状语性修饰语的性能及带宾词的性能。分词分为现在分词和过去分词两种,是一种非谓语动词形式。现在分词和过去分词主要差别在于:现在分词表示“主动和进行”,过去分词表示“被动和完成”(不及物动词的过去分词不表示被动,只表示完成)。分词可以有自己的状语、宾语或逻辑主语等。

分词总结

分词作状语
分词在句子中作状语,可以表示时间、条件、原因、结果、让步、方式、伴随等。
分词(短语)作状语时,其逻辑主语应与句中主语相一致。.当现在分词表示的动作发生在谓语动词之前时, 则用现在分词的完成式,当所表示动作与谓语动作同时发生, 则用现在分词的一般式。完成或被动关系用过去分词
(1)现在分词The students went out of the classroom, laughing and talking.
(2)过去分词Accompanied by his friend, he went to the railway station. Given better attention, the plants could grow better.
"while ( when, once, until, if , though等从属连词)+分词"结构
现在分词或过去分词作状语时,有时可以在分词前加while,when, once, although, until, if等从属连词
When leaving the airport, she waved again and again to us. While waiting for the train, I had a long talk with my sister about her work……
Once recovered, he threw himself into his work and made every effort to do it well.
Although working very hard, he failed to pass the final exam. If translated word by word, the passage will be difficult to understand.
分词作定语
分词作定语时,单个的分词通常放在被修饰的名词之前,单个分词作定语置于被修饰词的前面,分词短语作定语,置于被修饰词的后面。现在分词修饰的是发出该动作的名词(即与名词有主谓关系),过去分词修饰承受该动作的名词(即与名词是动宾关系)。
We will go on with our experiment as soon as we get the added fund.
This is really an exhausting day to all of us!
We can see the part of the moon lighted by sunlight.
After a night spent in excitement and sleeplessness, I forced myself to take a long walk along the beach the next day.
More and more developing countries established strategic partnership with developed countries
分词作宾语补足语
现在分词在see, watch, hear, observe, notice, feel, find, glimpse, glance等感官动词和look at, listen to等短语动词以及使役动词have,后面与名词或代词构成复合宾语,作宾语补语的成分,有三种形式,即动词原形,现在分词和过去分词。动词原形表主动和完成,现在分词表主动或正在进行,过去分词表被动或完成。
分词作表语通常看作形容词来用。现在分词表示主语的性质,而且主语多为物;过去分词表示主语的感受或状态,主语多为人。
例:The situation is encouraging.
The theory sounds quite convincing.

分词用法

1) 做表语

He was very amusing.
That book was rather boring.
很多动词的现在分词都可以作表语:
exciting, interesting, encouraging, disappointing, confusing, touching, puzzling.

2) 作定语

上面所出现的现在分词都可以用作定语, 修饰一个名词:
That must have been a terrifying experience.
I found him a charming person.
现在分词短语还可以放在名词的后面修饰名词, 相当于一个定语从句
There are a few boys swimming in the river.
There is a car waiting outside.

3) 作状语

现在分词短语可以表示一个同时发生的次要的或伴随的动作:
Following Tom, we started to climb the mountain.
Opening the drawer, he took out a box.
Taking a key out of his pocket, he opened the door.
现在分词短语还可以表示原因, 相当于一个原因状语从句
Not knowing her address, we couldn’t get in touch with her.
Being unemployed, he hasn’t got much money.
现在分词短语还可以表示时间, 相当于一个时间状语从句
Hearing the news, they all jumped with joy.
Returning home, he began to do his homework.
Jim hurt his arm while playing tennis.
Be careful when crossing the road.
Having found a hotel, we looked for somewhere to have dinner.
Having finished her work, she went home.

4)作宾补

现在分词在一些动词之后可以做宾语补语
例如, see, hear, catch, find, keep , have 等.
I see him passing my house every day.
I caught him stealing things in that shop.
I smelt something burning.
She kept him working all day.
三.分词的用法:
过去分词:

1) 作表语

We were so bored that we couldn’t help yawning.
She felt confused, and even frightened.
They were very pleased with the girl.
I’m satisfied with your answer.
He is not interested in research.

2) 作定语

She has a pleased look on her face.
The teacher gave us a satisfied smile.
cooked food a written report
fried eggs boiled water
frozen food armed forces
required courses fallen leaves
finished products a forced smile
the risen sun new arrived visitors
What’s the language spoken in that country?
They’re problem left over by history.
The play put on by the teachers was a big success.
Is there anybody injured?
Do you know the number of books ordered?

3)作状语

Seen from the hill, the city looks magnificent.
Given good health, I hope to finish the work this year.
They came in, followed by some children.
Depressed, he went to see his elder sister.
When treated with kindness, he was very amiable.
4)作宾补:
过去分词也同样可以作宾语的补语, 接在某些动词后面
I will have the clothes washed tomorrow.
When they get back home, they found the room robbed.

巩固练习

( ) 1. __________ with the best students, I still have a long way to go.
A. Having compared B. To compare
C. Compared D. Compare
( ) 2. The music of the film _________ by him sounds so ___________ .
A. playing, exciting B. played, excited
C. playing, excited D. played, exciting
( ) 3. __________ against the coming hurricane, they didn't dare leave home.
A. Warned B. Having warned
C. To warn D. Warn
( ) 4. In __________ countries, you can’t always make yourself _______ by speaking English.
A. English-speaking, understand B. English-spoken, understand
C. English-speaking, understood D. English-spoken, understood
( )5. After _____________ the old man, the doctor suggested that he ___________ a bad cold.
A. examining, should catch B. examined, had caught
C. examining, had caught D. examined, catch
( ) 6. _____________ , Tom jumped into the river and had a good time in it.
A. Be a good swimmer B. Being a good swimmer
C. Having been good swimmer D. To be a good swimmer
( ) 7. ________ how to read the new words, I often look them up in the dictionary.
A. Having not known B. Not to know
C. Don’t know D. Not knowing
( ) 8. As his parent, you shouldn’t have your child ___________ such a book.
A. read B. to read
C. reading D. be reading
( ) 9. He returned from abroad ______________ that his mother had been badly ill.
A. heard B. having been heard
C. having phoned D. having been phoned
答案:
1. C 2. D 3. A 4. C 5. C 6. B 7. D 8. C 9. D
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