不规则动词 百科内容来自于: 百度百科

不规则动词,英语动词按其过去式和过去分词的构成方式可分为规则动词和不规则动词。规则动词的过去式和过去分词由词尾加-ed构成,如果有e,只加d,而不规则动词的变化因词而异。没有比较级,如right、wrong、woolen等。

定义

英语单词中由动词原形转变为过去式和过去分词时不按词尾加“-ed”之变化规则者叫做不规则动词(Irregular Verbs)。
现代英语新生成的动词都归入“-ed”的规则变化,例如:
park→parked (停车--1864)
fax→faxed (以传真传送--1979)
e-mail→e-mailed (以电脑网络传送--1982)
(所附年次为最早用例出现年次--O.E.D.)
因此,不规则动词可以说都是古英语动词的不规则变化因其常用度很高而一直沿用到今天者,所以我们今天在学习英语时绝对无法,也不可能规避这些不规则动词。
从英语的演变来看,不规则动词就是强势动词(Strong Verbs)--即其词形变化全依其本身之语音(尤其是元音)变化来进行而不借助词尾的变化。例如:
原形: buy sing speak
过去式: bought sang spoke
过去分词: bought sung spoken
我们学习不规则动词的时候,最有效的方法就是要针对这种词形变化的现象,了解其变化的型式,发出声音背念,使其能自然地隔入我们的speaking和writing,这样才能说确实地把不规则动词学会了。
注:与强势动词相对,须借助“-ed”之词尾来进行词形变化的规则动词就叫做弱势动词(Weak Verbs)。

表格

AAA型

现在式、过去式和过去分词同形,保持不变,除进行式外
词例:
动词原形
过去式
过去分词
意思
cost
cost
cost
花费
cut
cut
cut
割,切
hit
hit
hit
put
put
put
放下
read #
read
read
hurt
hurt
hurt
受伤
let
let
let
# “Read” 的“过去式”和“过去分词”的读音和动词原型的读音不同。

AAB型

现在式和过去式同形
词例:
动词原型
过去式
过去分词
意思
beat
beat
beaten

ABA型

现在式和过去分词同形
词例:
动词原形
过去式
过去分词
意思
come
came
come
来到
become
became
become
run
ran
run
overcome
overcame
overcome
征服,打败

ABB型

过去式与过去分词同形
分为以下情形:
动词原形后加一个辅音字母d或t。
词例:
动词原形
过去式
过去分词
意思
burn
burn t
burn t
燃烧
learn
learn ed / learn t
learn ed / learn t
学习
mean
mean t
mean t
含义
hear
hear d
hear d
听见
把动词原形的最后一个辅音字母“d”改为“t”。
词例:
动词原形
过去式
过去分词
意思
build
buil t
buil t
建筑
lend
len t
len t
send
sen t
sen t
传送
spend
spen t
spen t
花费
③ 其他不规则的各种变化。
词例:
动词原形
过去式
过去分词
意思
动词原形
过去式
过去分词
意思
pay
paid
paid
付钱
lay
laid
laid
下蛋
say
said
said
bring
brought
brought
带来
buy
bought
bought
fight
fought
fought
战斗
think
thought
thought
思考
sleep
slept
slept
睡觉
feel
felt
felt
感觉
keep
kept
kept
保持
sweep
swept
swept
stand
stood
stood
understand
understood
understood
理解
win
won
won
胜利
catch
caught
caught
抓住
teach
taught
taught
find
found
found
发现
get
got
got
得到
hold
held
held
leave
left
left
离开
make
made
made
制造
meet
met
met
遇见
shoot
shot
shot
射击
dig
dug
dug
smell
smelt / smelled
smelt / smelled
嗅,闻
shine
shone / shined
shone / shined
发光
sit
sat
sat
坐下
have
had
had

ABC型

三词不同形,分为以下情形:
动词原形后加-n或-en 构成过去分词 。
动词原形
过去式
过去分词
意思
动词原形
过去式
过去分词
意思
eat
ate
eat en
fall
fell
fall en
落下
give
gave
give n
take
took
take n
拿,记录,拍摄
see
saw
see n
看见
write
wrote
writte n
ride
rode
ridde n
drive
drove
drive n
驾驶
throw
threw
throw n
抛,扔
blow
blew
blow n
grow
grew
grow n
生长
know
knew
know n
知道
show
showed
show n
展示
draw
drew
draw n
拉,绘画,抽签
过去式加-n或-en构成过去分词。
动词原形
过去式
过去分词
意思
speak
spoke
spoke n
说话
break
broke
broke n
破碎
choose
chose
chose n
选择
forget
forgot
forgott en
忘记
freeze
froze
froze n
凝固
把单词在重读音节中的元音字母“i”变成“a”(过去式)和“u”(过去分词)。
动词原形
过去式
过去分词
意思
begin
beg an
beg un
开始
ring
r ang
r ung
按铃
sing
s ang
s ung
sink
s ank
s unk
swim
sw am
sw um
游泳
drink
dr ank
dr unk
序号
不定式
过去式
过去分词
1
abide
abode, abided
abode, abided
2
arise
arose
arisen
3
awake
awoke
awaked, awoken
4
be
was
been
5
bear
bore
borne, born
6
beat
beat
beaten
7
become
became
become
8
befall
befell
befallen
9
beget
begot
begotten
10
begin
began
begun
11
behold
beheld
beheld
12
bend
bent
bent
13
bereave
bereaved, bereft
bereaved, bereft
14
beseech
besought
besought
15
beset
beset
beset
16
bet
bet, betted
bet, betted
17
betake
betook
betaken
18
bethink
bethought
bethought
19
bid
bade, bid
bidden, bid
20
bind
bound
bound
21
bite
bit
bitten, bit
22
bleed
bled
bled
23
blend
blended, blent
blended, blent
24
bless
blessed, blest
blessed, blest
25
blow
blew
blown
26
break
broke
broken
27
breed
bred
bred
28
bring
brought
brought
29
broadcast
broadcast, broadcasted
broadcast, broadcasted
30
build
built
built
31
burn
burnt, burned
burnt, burned
32
burst
burst
burst
33
buy
bought
bought
34
cast
cast
cast
35
catch
caught
caught
36
chide
chided, chid
chided, chidden
37
choose
chose
chosen
38
cleave
clove, cleft
cloven, cleft
39
cling
clung
clung
40
clothe
clothed, clad
clothed, clad
41
come
came
come
42
cost
cost
cost
43
creep
crept
crept
44
crow
crowed, crew
crowed
45
cut
cut
cut
46
dare
dared, durst
dared
47
dea
dealt
dealt
48
dig
dug
dug
49
dive
dived; (US) dove
dived
50
do
did
done
51
draw
drew
drawn
52
dream
dreamt, dreamed
dreamt, dreamed
53
drink
drank
drunk
54
drive
drove
driven
55
dwell
dwelt
dwelt
56
eat
ate
eaten
57
fall
fell
fallen
58
feed
fed
fed
59
feel
felt
felt
60
fight
fought
fought
61
find
found
found
62
flee
fled
fled
63
fling
flung
flung
64
fly
flew
flown
65
forbear
forbore
forborne
66
forbid
forbade, forbad
forbidden
67
forecast
forecast, forecasted
forecast, forecasted
68
foreknow
foreknew
foreknown
69
foresee
foresew
foreseen
70
foretell
foretold
foretold
71
forget
forgot
forgotten
72
forgive
forgave
forgiven
73
forsake
forsook
forsaken
74
forswear
forswore
forsworn
75
freeze
froze
frozen
76
gainsay
gainsaid
gainsaid
77
get
got
got; (US) gotten
78
gild
gilded, gilt
gilded
79
gird
girded, girt
girded, girt
80
give
gave
given
81
go
went
gone
82
grave
graved
graven, graved
83
grind
ground
ground
84
grow
grew
grown
85
hamstring
hamstringed, hamstrung
hamstringed , hamstrung
86
hang
hung, hanged
hung, hanged
87
have
had
had
88
hear
heard
heard
89
heave
heaved, hove
hesved, hove
90
hew
hewed
hewed, hewn
91
hide
hid
hidden
92
hit
hit
hit
93
held
held
held
94
hurt
hurt
hurt
95
inlay
inlaid
inlaid
96
keep
kept
kept
97
kneel
knelt
knelt
98
knit
knitted, knit
knitted, knit
99
know
knew
known
100
lade
laded
laden
101
lay
laid
laid
102
load
led
led
103
lean
lesnt, leaned
lesnt, leaned
104
leap
leapt, leaped
leapt, leaped
105
learn
learnt, learned
learnt, learned
106
leave
left
left
107
lend
lent
lent
108
let
let
let
109
lie
lay
lain
110
light
lit, lighted
lit, lighted
111
lose
lost
lost
112
make
made
made
113
mean
meant
meant
114
meet
met
met
115
melt
melted
melted, molten
116
miscast
miscast
miscast
117
misdeal
misdealt
misdealt
118
misgive
misgave
misgiven
119
mislay
mislaid
mislaid
120
mislead
misled
misled
121
misspell
misspelt
misspelt
122
misspend
misspent
misspent
123
mistake
mistook
mistaken
124
misunderstand
misunderstood
misunderstood
125
mow
mowed
mown; (US) mowed
126
outbid
outbid
outbid
127
outdo
outdid
outdone
128
outg o
outwent
outgone
129
outgrow
outgrew
outgrown
130
outride
outrode
outridden
131
outrun
outran
outrun
132
outshine
outshone
outshone
133
overbear
overbore
overborne
134
overcast
overcast
overcast
135
overcome
overcame
overcome
136
overdo
overdid
overdone
137
overhang
overhung
overhung
138
overhea r
overheard
overheard
139
overlay
overlaid
overlaid
140
overleap
overleapt, overleaped
overleapt, overleaped
141
overlie
overlay
overlain
142
override
overrode
overridden
143
overrun
overran
overun
144
oversee
oversaw
overseen
145
overshoot
overshot
overshot
146
oversleep
overslept
overslept
147
overtake
overtook
overtaken
148
overthrow
overthrew
overthrown
149
partake
partook
partaken
150
pay
paid
paid
151
prove
proved
proved, proven
152
put
put
put
153
quit
quitted, quit
quitted, quit
154
read
read [red]
read [red]
155
rebind
rebound
rebound
156
rebuild
rebuilt
rebuilt
157
recast
recast
recast
158
redo
redid
redone
159
relay
relaid
relaid
160
remake
remade
remade
161
rend
rent
rent
162
repay
repaid
repaid
163
rerun
reran
rerun
164
reset
reset
reset
165
retell
retold
retold
166
rewrite
rewrote
rewritten
167
rid
red, redded
rid, ridded
168
ride
rode
ridden
169
ring
rang
rung
170
rise
rose
risen
171
rive
rived
riven, rived
172
run
ran
run
173
saw
sawed
sawn, sawed
174
say
said
said
175
see
saw
seen
176
seek
sought
sought
177
sell
sold
sold
178
send
sent
sent
179
set
set
set
180
sew
sewed
sewn, sewed
181
shake
shook
shaken
182
shave
shaved
shaved, shaven
183
shear
sheared
sheared, shorn
184
shed
shed
shed
185
shine
shone
shone
186
shoe
shod
shod
187
shoot
shot
shot
188
show
showed
shown, showed
189
shrink
shrank, shrunk
shrunk, shrunken
190
shrive
shrove, shrived
shriven, shrived
191
shut
shut
shut
192
sing
sang, sung
sung
193
sink
sank, sunk
sunk; sunken
194
sit
sat
sat
195
slay
slew
slain
196
sleep
slept
slept
197
slide
slid
slid
198
sling
slung
slung
199
slink
slunk
slunk
200
slit
slit
slit
201
smell
smelt; smelled
smelt; smelled
202
smite
smote
smitten
203
sow
sowed
sown, sowed
204
speak
spoke
spoken
205
speed
sped, speeded
sped, speeded
206
spell
spelt, spelled
spelt, spelled
207
spend
spent
spent
208
spill
spilt, spilled
spilt, spilled
209
spin
spun, span
spun
210
spit
spat, spit
spat, spit
211
spoil
spoilt, spoiled
spoilt, spoiled
212
spread
spread
spread
213
spring
sprang, sprung
sprung
214
stand
stood
stood
215
stave
staved, stove
staved, stove
216
steal
stole
stolen
217
stick
stuck
stuck
218
sting
stung
stung
219
stink
stank, stunk
stunk
220
strew
strewed
strewn, strewed
221
stride
strode
stridden, strid
222
strike
struck
struck, stricken
223
string
strung
strung
224
strive
strove
striven
225
swear
swore
sworn
226
sweep
swept
swept
227
swell
swelled
swollen, swelled
228
swim
swam
swum
229
swing
swung
swung
230
take
took
taken
231
teach
taught
taught
232
tear
tore
torn
233
tell
told
told
234
think
thought
thought
235
thrive
throve, thrived
thriven, thrived
236
throw
threw
thrown
237
thrust
thrust
thrust
238
tread
trod
trodden, trod
239
unbend
unbent
unbent
240
unbind
unbound
unbound
241
underbid
underbid
underbid, underbidden
242
undergo
underwent
undergone
243
understand
understood
understood
244
undertake
undertook
undertaken
245
undo
undid
undone
246
upset
upset
upset
247
wake
woke, waked
woken, waked
248
waylay
waylaid
waylaid
249
wear
wore
worn
250
weave
wove
woven
251
weep
wept
wept
252
win
won
won
253
wind
wound
wound
254
withdraw
withdrew
withdrawn
255
withhold
withheld
withheld
256
withstand
withstood
withstood
257
work
worked, wrought
worked, wrought
258
wring
wrung
wrung
259
write
wrote
written

方法

(1)原形、过去式、过去分词相同(A-A-A型):
cast/cost/cut/hit/hurt/let/put/broadcast/burst/read/red/set/shut/spread/thrust/upset
(2)原形、过去式相同,过去分词不同(A-A-B型):
beat/beat/beaten
(3)原形、过去分词相同,过去式不同(A-B-A型):
come/came/come become/became/become
run/ran/run overcome/overcame/overcome
(4)原形不同,过去式,过去分词相同(A-B-B):
1.在动词原形后加一个辅动词d或t构成过去式或过去分词。
2.把动词原形的最后一个辅音字母“d”改为“t”构成过去式或过去分词
3.其他
feel/felt/felt sleep/slept/slept
leave/left/left smell/smelt/smelt
keep/kept/kept creep/crept/crept
kneel/knelt/knelt sweep/swept/swept
spell/spelt/spelt weep/wept/wept
catch/caught/caught fight/fought/fought
teach/taught/taught think/thought/thought
stand/stood/stood lay/laid/laid
understand/understood/understood pay/paid/paid
bleed/bled/bled say/said/said
feed/fed/fed stick/stuck/stuck
lead/led/led strike/struck/struck
meet/met/met tell/told/told
learn/learnt/learnt sell/sold/sold
learn/learned/learned win/won/won
burn/burnt/burnt wind/wound/wound
burn/burned/burned have(has)/had/had
deal/dealt/dealt hear/heard/heard
mean/meant/meant lean/leant/leant
dream/dreamt/dreamt lean/ leaned/leaned
bend/bent/bent shine/shone/shone
build/built/built shoot/shot/shot
lend/lent/lent show/showed/shown,
spend/spent/spent show/showed//showed
flee/fled/fled sit/sat/sat
speed/sped/sped lose/lost/lost
speed/speeded/speeded dig/dug/dug
spit/spit/spit hold/held/held
spit/spat/spat get/got/got(AmE gotten)
bring/brought/brought find/found/found
light/lit/lit make/made/made
light/lighted/lighted buy/bought/bought
(5)现在式,过去式,过去分词都不同(A-B-C型):
1.在动词原形后加-n或-en构成过去分词。
2.过去式家-n或-en构成过去分词。
3.变单词在重读音节中的的元音字母“i”分别为“a”(过去式)“u”(过去分词)。
drive/drove/driven blow/blew/blown
rise/rose/risen fly/flew/flown
wake woke/woken grow/grew/grown
do/did/done know/knew/known
go/went/gone throw/threw/thrown
see/saw/seen prove/proved/proven
eat/ate/eaten break/broke/broken
fall/fell/fallen choose/chose/chosen
give/gave/given freeze/froze/frozen
shake/shook/shaken speak/spoke/spoken
take/took/taken steal/stole/stolen
mistake/mistook/mistaken weave/wove/woven
forbid/forbad/forbidden begin/began/begun
forget/forgot/forgotten drink/drank/drunk
ride/rode/ridden ring/rang/rung
hide/hid/hidden sing/sang/sung
write/wrote/written sink/sank/sunk
wear/wore/worn swim/swam/swum
(6)相同动词因其过去式、过去分词有两形式而产生不同词义:
speed过去式、过去分词有两种:
sped/sped快行 speeded/speeded加速
light过去式,过去分词有两种:
lit/lit点着(表语) lighted/lighted供电,点燃的(定语)
shine过去式、过去分词有两种:
shone/shone/照耀 shined/shined擦亮
hang过去式、过去分词有两种:
hung/hung悬挂 hanged/hanged绞死
(7)drunken,stricken,sunken已转为形容词常作定语
a~ sot酒鬼 in a~manner摇摇晃晃地
(8)lie躺卧lay/lain/lying(现在分词)
lie撒谎 lied/lied/lying
lay放,下蛋laid/laid/laying
(9)come,become,overcome属不规则变化,但welcome属规则动词,其过去式、过去分词为:welcomed,welcomed
(10)fly,blow不是规则变化,但flow(流)是规则变化,过去式、过去分词为flowed,flowed.
(11) find发现 found found
found创建 founded founded
wind绕 wound wound
wound伤害 wounded wounded
see看见 saw seen
saw锯 sawed sawed
bear作“出生”, 过去分词有两种:born,borne,
borne用于have之后及带有by的被动句中;
born用于be born in/on/at中。
作“出生”,以外意义,其形式为bear/bore/borne忍受。
$firstVoiceSent
- 来自原声例句
小调查
请问您想要如何调整此模块?

感谢您的反馈,我们会尽快进行适当修改!
进来说说原因吧 确定
小调查
请问您想要如何调整此模块?

感谢您的反馈,我们会尽快进行适当修改!
进来说说原因吧 确定