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• So, these on-changing properties that describe the state of the equilibrium state of the system are called state variables.

这些描述,系统平衡态的,变化的属性,就叫做状态变量。

麻省理工公开课 - 热力学与动力学课程节选

• OK, so now let's try to formulate how to describe the equilibrium state and what dictates spontaneity.

现在我们尝试,找出如何描述平衡态以及,什么东西表明自发性。

麻省理工公开课 - 热力学与动力学课程节选

• What extracellular matrix you have in any particular tissue is there because there's a balance between it being produced by one kind of cell and digested by another, and you're in this sort of state of dynamic equilibrium.

特定组织中,细胞外基质的多少,取决于一个,分泌与降解的平衡,这是一种动态的平衡关系

耶鲁公开课 - 生物医学工程探索课程节选

• The equilibrium state is the one, and it's just one, in which there are no spontaneous changes that can take place to any other state.

平衡态是一个，而且仅仅是一个态，这个态不会发生自发变化,变成其他的态。

麻省理工公开课 - 热力学与动力学课程节选

• In the case here, tha t I just illustrated with the little cart going down the valley, would be exactly the same with regular energy, the equilibrium state is one of lowest energy, right.

在现在所考虑的情况下,我刚才所描述的小车沿着山谷下行，结论会像能量判据一样，平衡态是能量最低的态。

麻省理工公开课 - 热力学与动力学课程节选

• Now we want to show a notation, how do we go from one equilibrium state like this describes to another equilibrium state?

现在我们要展示一种记号，来标记）我们如何,从这里描述的,这样的一个平衡态过渡到另一个平衡态？

麻省理工公开课 - 热力学与动力学课程节选

• That is, the chain, they could they could be approached with very little change from the equilibrium state.

这些态可以,通过平衡态,发生一些微小的变化得到。

麻省理工公开课 - 热力学与动力学课程节选

• We're going to find other properties that do care about the history of the system like work, that you put in the system, or heat that you put in the system, or some other variables But you can't use those to define the equilibrium state.

我们还会发现其他一些,与系统的历史有关的性质,比如你对系统做的功，或者你向系统传递的热量，或其他的变量,但你不能用它们,来定义平衡态。

麻省理工公开课 - 热力学与动力学课程节选

• So it applies to macroscopic systems that are in equilibrium, and how to go from one equilibrium state to another equilibrium state, and it's entirely empirical in its foundation.

因此，热力学研究的是平衡态的宏观系统,以及如何从,一个平衡态过渡到另一个平衡态，它完全是建立在经验的基础上的。

麻省理工公开课 - 热力学与动力学课程节选

• Well, the equilibrium state is the one with the gases completely mixed.

平衡态就是,气体完全混合的态。

麻省理工公开课 - 热力学与动力学课程节选

• Of course there are lots of states that would have maybe local pockets of one substance in excess and another substance in excess somewhere else In other words, there would be lots of states nearby to the equilibrium state.

当然，我们有很多的态,这些态中，某些位置被一种气体完全占据,另外一些位置被另一种气体完全占据,换句话说,在平衡态附近有很多的态。

麻省理工公开课 - 热力学与动力学课程节选

• They aren't the equilibrium state.

它们不是平衡态。

麻省理工公开课 - 热力学与动力学课程节选

• If I look at different points in my container during that path, I'm going to have to use a different value of pressure or different value of temperature That's not an equilibrium state, and that process turns out then to be an irreversible process.

如果我要研究在路径中容器里的,不同的点，我就得在容器里不同的点上使用,不同的压强值,或不同的温度值,实际上这不是个平衡态，这个过程是,不可逆过程。

麻省理工公开课 - 热力学与动力学课程节选

• That is the equilibrium state.

这就是平衡态。

麻省理工公开课 - 热力学与动力学课程节选

• In some sense, that's one reason to associate this as a kind of energy, H just like mechanical energy u or enthalpy H, it's the minimum free energy state that is the equilibrium state under the relevant conditions.

在某种意义下，这是我们把这些物理量称为能量的原因，就像机械能U和自由焓，具有最小自由能的状态在特定的条件下,就是平衡态。

麻省理工公开课 - 热力学与动力学课程节选

• Thermodynamicstalks about equilibrium systems and how to go from one state of equilibrium to another state of equilibrium.

热力学研究的是平衡系统,以及如何,从一个平衡态转变到另一个平衡态。

麻省理工公开课 - 热力学与动力学课程节选

• So the state variables describe the equilibrium's state and they don't care about how this state got to where it is.

状态变量,描述平衡态，它们并不关心,系统是如何演化成这样的。

麻省理工公开课 - 热力学与动力学课程节选

• The one that is at equilibrium, there is only one macroscopic state at equilibrium.

处于平衡的状态，并且只有一个平衡的宏观状态。

麻省理工公开课 - 热力学与动力学课程节选

• And now, what is this saying, the equilibrium state is the one with the lowest possible enthalpy.

这时，上面的结论表明,平衡态是自由焓最小的态。

麻省理工公开课 - 热力学与动力学课程节选

• I've gone from 1 equilibrium state to another equilibrium state and the equal sign means you go from this state to that state.

从一个平衡态,过渡到了另一个平衡态,等号表示,从这个态到了那个态。

麻省理工公开课 - 热力学与动力学课程节选

• So the point is, once you're at equilibrium none of the other states they're accessible, the system could rearrange itself to form them, but there is no accessible state that has higher entropy than the equilibrium state.

所以要点在于，如果你处于平衡态,其他所有的态都无法达到，我们可以重组体统来形成这些态，但没有一个可以达到的态,有比平衡态大的熵。

麻省理工公开课 - 热力学与动力学课程节选

• In other words, what is the equilibrium state?

话句话说，哪个是平衡态？

麻省理工公开课 - 热力学与动力学课程节选

• So that's a big help. And equilibrium happens when there isn't any possible change of state that would satisfy this.

这个非常方便，当所有的变化,都无法满足这个公式的时候,系统就达到了平衡。

麻省理工公开课 - 热力学与动力学课程节选

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