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• Compare with other tools which built on the hypothesis of normal distributing, ruin theory is more reasonable.

其他基于正态分布假设风险度量方法，合乎实际情况：保险学的概率分布厚尾的。

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• Ruin theory which is also called risk theory, is the core content of the category of the insurance mathematics.

破产理论一般风险理论，传统上被认为保险数学经典内容

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• In the ruin theory, the problem of the computation and approximation of the ruin function has been solved very well.

破产理论地解决了破产函数计算近似问题

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• However, these restrictions are still reasonable for application, especially for application in ruin theory, as described therein.

不过应用问题中(特别是破产理论中的应用)这些限制都是非常合理的。

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• Risk theory is a hot study topic in the realm of modern actuarial science and mathematics, and ruin theory is the core of risk theory.

风险理论现代精算数学界研究热点破产理论是风险理论的核心内容

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• The research of the ruin theory has hundreds of years history up to now. But most research has not considered interest rates for a long time.

对于破产理论研究至今已有近百历史但是很长一段时间，绝大部分的破产论研究是考虑利率的。

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• In modern ruin theory, three important indicators of general concern are: the time of ruin, the deficit at ruin, the surplus immediately before the time of ruin.

现代破产理论中，普遍关注三个重要指标：破产概率、破产时间、破产瞬时盈余和破产赤字之间的关系。

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• In the context of Insurance Mathematics (also to be called Actuarial Mathema tics), the researches of ruin theory carried out nearly for century are reviewed generally.

本文保险数学(称为精算数学)范畴内，破产近百年研究进展作了综述性的回顾。

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• Research on ruin theory has always been playing a pivot role in the study of risk theory since it bears both an insurance practical background and interests of probability theory.

破产理论一直风险理论研究核心，研究既有保险实务的应用背景，又有概率论上的兴趣

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• After studying more than a dozen temples, Martinez headed west of Alexandria along the coastal road to explore the ruin she had begun to believe was the last, best hope for her theory.

调查过十几个寺庙之后，马丁尼自亚历山大·利亚沿海岸公路西去探访认为最后一处遗址，也是觉得最有希望的地方。

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• Risk theory, as a part of insurance-or actuarial-mathematics, deals with stochastic models of an insurance business and studies the probability of ruin.

风险理论作为保险精算数学一部分，主要处理保险事务中的随机风险模型研究破产概率等问题。

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• The differential and integral equation for survival probability and a upper bound of ruin probability are given by using renewal theory and stochastic process approach.

利用更新理论随机过程等方法给出了模型生存概率所满足微积分方程关系式破产概率的一个上界估计。

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• Finally, using the theory of random walks, we discuss the probability of ruin when the aggregate claims process and the premium income process are the same renewal process.

最后利用随机游动知识讨论了当保单来到过程索赔来到过程同一更新过程破产概率

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• Finally, using the theory of random walks, we discuss the probability of ruin when the aggregate claims process and the premium income process are the same renewal process.

最后利用随机游动知识讨论了当保单来到过程索赔来到过程同一更新过程破产概率

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